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KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



UNIVERSITY QUESTION. 



THE 



STATEMENTS 

, OF 

JOHN LANGTON, ESQ., M.A., 

VICE-CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO J 



AND 



PROFESSOR DANIEL WILSON, LL.D., 

OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, TORONTO J 

WITH NOTES AND EXTRACTS 

FROM THE EVIDENCE TAKEN BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE OE THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 
ON THE UNIVERSITY. 



TORONTO: 
ROWSELL & ELLIS, PRINTERS, KING STREET. 

1860. 



L 

P&ota 

LA 






STATEMENT 



OF 



JOHN LANGTON, M.A., 



VICE-CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



The method of investigation adopted by the Committee has been, that 
each of the gentlemen appearing on behalf of those, who have prayed for 
an enquiry, has put in as evidence a written statement of the facts and 
arguments, by which he substantiates his objections to the present consti- 
tution and management of the University. In conformity with this 
arrangement, before answering such questions as may be put to me, I 
desire to submit a reply on behalf of the University of Toronto, with a 
reference to such documents as I believe will aid the Committee in coming 
to a correct judgment upon the questions before them. If my reply 
should be thought to extend to an unreasonable length, I hope the Com- 
mittee will remember that each of these gentlemen has principally 
confined himself to one or two particular points, whilst I have to enter 
into them all ; and that the complainants frequently make a general 
charge in a few words, the truth of which I can only enable the Commit- 
tee to judge of by examining it in detail. 

The subject naturally divides itself into three principal heads, the 
University, University College, and Upper Canada College, which must 
be judged of separately, although having many points of mutual connex- 
ion. Upper Canada College is supported by a distinct endowment, and 
is only so far connected with the University, that the general superin- 
tendence of the institution has been committed to the Senate. It is very 
^ proper that the subject should be enquired into, and I am prepared to go 
into the question of its management by the Senate ; but whatever may 
be the conclusion of the Committee, whether the management be conti- 
nued in the hands of the Senate, or be vested as formerly in a sepa- 
rate corporate body, or even if that College were to be altogether 
abolished, the main question of the constitution of the University would 
remain unaltered. With regard to University College, whilst on the one 
hand the connexion is closer, as it is supported out of the same endow- 
ment, and forms an essential portion of the Provincial University as 
contemplated by the Legislature, on the other hand its internal govern- 



merit rests with a body entirely independent of the Senate, and the 
details of its organization and discipline are beyond our control. In this 
enquiry I only appear for the University, and it is not my intention to 
enter into questions relating to the College, apart from its connexion with 
the general scheme, unless in answer to questions which may be put to 
me by the Committee. 



(1.) LEGALITY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

It is argued that the Collegiate Institutions supported by the different 
denominations, have, by the Act, an equitable, if not a legal right to an 
apportionment of the University endowment. Dr. Cook supports this 
view upon what he conceives to be the well known and easily proved 
policy of the framers of the University Amendment Act ; Dr. Stinson, 
upon what he considers "the plain letter and obvious design" of the 
Act itself. I cannot agree with either of them. It would be very unsafe 
to judge of the meaning and intention of an Act from the recollection of 
conversations with leading politicians, or even from the individual wishes 
of members of the Government, several years ago ; and still more so, 
from a clause in the Bill as originally introduced, which does not 
appear in the Act as finally piassed. If any conclusion is to be drawn 
from this latter fact, it is rather a presumption that the Legislature did 
not sanction the principle of the suppressed clause ; but that it having 
been originally proposed to make a specific grant to certain Institutions, 
it was judged by the framers of the Bill, and by the Legislature, wiser to 
leave the appropriation of any surplus which might arise, after the main 
objects of the Act had been accomplished, to future legislation. That the 
present 54th section cannot have been intended to carry out in other 
words the principle of the suppressed clause, is obvious from the fact, that 
the latter expresses, as a condition of the grant, the abandonment of their 
Charters by the Colleges ; whereas the former in no way limits the appor- 
tionment which may be made by Parliament of any surplus. 

Neither does the Act, as it stands, bear out the intention assigned to 
it by Dr. Stinson. To understand properly the meaning of the Preamble 
of the University Amendment Act, reference must be had to Mr. Bald- 
win's Act of 1849, which it repeals. The Preamble of the Act 12 
Victoria, chapter 82, recites that " whereas the people of this Province 
consist of various denominations of Christians, to the members of each of 
which denominations it is desirable to extend the benefits of University 
Education," <fcc. The Act, therefore, goes on to purge King's College of 
its denominational aspect, and under another name to constitute one 
central Institution in Toronto, both for teaching and examiaitiy, 
intended to be entirely free from all denominational bias. The 43rd 
section provides that any existing College, upon surrendering its light to 
confer Degrees, except in Divinity, may become affiliated J but the 
only privilege they obtain thereby is the power of electing Members 
to the Senate. The only teaching Body, except in Theology, was 
to be the University of Toronto, and no Degree could be conferred 
except upon students who had gone through their regular course in 
Toronto. This being premised, the meaning of the Amendment Act is 



b 

obvious. It recites in the Preamble that no Colleges have affiliated ; that 
parents are deterred by the expense and other causes, from sending young- 
men to Toronto, and that it is just and right to afford facilities to those 
who pursue their studies elsewhere, to obtain Degrees and other Academ- 
ical honors in the Provincial University, according to the system pursued 
in the University of London. The Act theiefore goes on to establish the 
University as a distinct Body ; to constitute University College out of 
the teaching staff of the former University, as a College supported by the 
State endowment ; and the 17th section enacts that all existing Colleges 
in Upper and Lower Canada, and such others as may afterwards be so 
declared, shall have all the rights of Affiliated Colleges, and students who 
have pursued in any of them the course of study prescribed by the Uni- 
versity, shall be as eligible for Degrees and other distinctions, as those 
educated in University College. This, then, is the remedy provided for 
an acknowledged grievance under the old law, and not, as is contended 
by Dr. Stinson, that the Denominational Colleges should be supported 
from the State Endowment. That the present 54th section could not 
have been intended as any pledge that the Affiliated Colleges should 
receive pecuniary aid from the Endowment, is evident, if only from this 
fact, that no distinction is made in the affiliation between Colleges in 
Upper and in Lower Canada, and it will hardly be contended that there 
was any intention of supporting Lower Canada Colleges out of an exclu- 
sively Upper Canadian Fund. 

Dr. Green is even more distinct in his assertion, that the Act of 1849 
was repealed for the avowed and clearly expressed purpose of providing 
for an extension of the Fund to the Denominational Colleges. It must 
strike the Committee as somewhat singular, that this avowed purpose 
should have been entirely unnoticed in the Act, except by the power 
given to Parliament to deal hereafter with any surplus which might arise, 
for Academical education generally ; and that the Act should only have 
assigned an altogether different reason for the repeal of Baldwin's Act, 
viz. : that instead of pursuing all their studies in Toronto, students might 
be allowed to pursue them any where, as in the University of London. 
Dr. Green, thinking only of the money, accuses the Government and the 
Legislature of holding out fallacious promises ; the Legislature, thinking- 
only of the convenience of the students, provided for them every thing 
that it promised. 

I entirely concur in the view stated by almost all the gentlemen who 
have appeared before the Committee, that the true policy is to have one 
Central Body for conferring Degrees, which judges of candidates only by 
their proficiency in the subjects of examination prescribed, without regard 
to the College in which they have pursued their studies, or indeed whe- 
ther they have been students in any incorporated College at all, a point 
strongly insisted upon by the Oxford Commissioners, (p. 213, et seq., 
Hey wood's Ed.,) and sanctioned by the revised charter of the University 
of London. For such a system of University Education the Amendment 
Act makes provision, and the Statutes framed by the Senate are adapted 
to give it effect. That the Denominational Colleges, whilst, praising it 
in theory, have not thought fit to adopt it in practice, is much to be 
regretted ; but the University authorities are in no way to blame. It is 
not, as stated by Dr. Cook, that "the Government required, as a prelim- 
inary and necessary condition to affiliation, that Colleges having Univer- 



sity powers, either from the Crown or by Provincial enactments, stiould 
surrender their powers," for no such provision is contained in the Act. 
It is not, as, in various forms, is asserted by the appellants, that exclu- 
sive privileges are given to University College ; for, as will be shewn 
hereafter, no such action has been taken either by the Government or the 
Senate. One reason why the Denominational Colleges have not adopted 
the University course, has been stated to be that they are unable, from 
insufficient means, to teach all the subjects required. It certainly can- 
not be expected that each College should maintain a staff of Professors 
capable of efficiently teaching, in their higher branches, all the subjects 
embraced in the University course — a very strong argument in favour of 
maintaining one Provincial College that can ; but by the system of op- 
tions permitted, this would not debar their students from entering the 
University, and competing for honors in departments which their College 
can teach well. But there is a reason beyond this. It is not that any 
part of the machinery is wanting to establish in Canada a system similar 
to that which works so well in England, that has formed a bar to the 
full carrying out of the Act as yet ; but it is the desire of Denomina- 
tional Colleges to have them supported from Provincial Funds, a desire 
inconsistent with the well known feelings of the people of Upper Canada, 
and at variance with the principle upon which all our other National 
Educational Institutions have been established. As far as Academical 
studies and rewards are concerned, the Act proposed to itself the U ni- 
versity of London as a model, but in relation to endowment it distinctly 
recognizes a difference ; whereas in England no Government aid is given 
to any of the Affiliated Colleges as such, in Canada, as in Ireland, the 
Legislature founded and endowed one non-denominational College, which 
otherwise has* no privileges over the others. 



(2.) Equal Rights of all Affiliated Colleges. 

It is contended that the intention of the Act has been frustrated by the 
action of Government, and of the University, which have pursued the 
policy of building up one College to the exclusion of all others. This 
charge is mostly expressed in general language, but there are some few 
cases where it is made in a tangible shape. 

Dr. Cook instances "its (the College's) numerous scholarships," but he 
must be aware, or, before making the charge, should have informed him- 
self, that the University Scholarships are as open to the students of 
Queen's as of University College. They are not even, as Professor 
Weir says he understands they are, practically confined to University 
College, for many of them are held by Students who have no connexion 
with that Institution.* 

* Ques. 466. In your Statement in Chief you say that the scholarships of Toronto Uni- 
versity are all open scholarships, unconnected with any College ; — that a student of 
Queen's or Victoria may hold one if he can obtain it. and continue his studies at his own 
College : that, in fact, any young men who can come up to the requisite standard, whe- 
ther they belong to a College or not, may hold scholarships of the University, and that 
many are so held. Can you state the whole number of scholarships awarded by the Uni- 
versity since its commencement, and how many were taken by students not at the time 
students of the University ?— There have been 213 scholarships awarded since 1854, Of 



7 

Again, Dr. Ryerson complains, that the annifal examinations make it 
too burdensome for students educated out of Toronto to attend ; but as a 
member of the Senate, Br. Ryerson should be aware, that no student in 
any Affiliated College is required to appear except at the examination for 
the second year, and at the final examination ; a certificate from the head 
of his College that he has satisfactorily passed in it the examinations 
required for matriculation, first year, and third year, being sufficient to 
admit him to his standing ; an arrangement adopted by the Senate with 
the special view of accommodating the Colleges which are not situated 
in Toronto. 

All the parties who have appeared have complained of the appointment 
of three professors of University College upon the Senate. It must be 
remembered that the Senate as originally constituted, with the head of 
each educational institution as an ex officio member, had been in existence 
for three years before these appointments were made, and yet the denomi- 
national Colleges had not only taken no steps to take advantage of the 
Act, but one of them had even expressly declined to recognize its affilia- 
tion. It is therefore not surprising that the Government, in the absence of 
the assistance which might have been expected from them, should give the 
Senate the advantage of the practical experience of gentlemen of such 
acknowledged learning as Dr. Croft, Dr. Wilson, and Professor Cherrimau. 

There is one point connected with this charge which I cannot pass over, 
as it implies an imputation against these gentlemen. It is stated by Dr. 
Cook, and it was as broadly asserted by Dr. Ryerson, in his oral evidence, 
that the Professors form part of a body which fixes their own salaries, 
though, as it appears in print, the latter gentleman's charge is somewhat 
modified. I have reason to know that Dr. Cook stated this in ignorance 
of the facts, but Dr. Ryerson is certainly fully cognizant of them. The 
salaries of the Professors are determined by Order in Council, and not by 
the Senate. It has indeed twice occurred, that His Excellency has 
referred to the Senate for advice on this point, and that the Senate 
recommended an increase of salary ; but what share any of the gentle- 
men, whose salaries have in any way come before the Senate, had in 
determining their amounts, may be judged of from the following facts. 
When a memorial of Dr. McCaul's to His Excellency, praying that his 
emoluments might be raised to their former amount, was referred to the 
Senate, Dr. McCaul not only left the meeting, but objected that it was a 
matter with which the Senate had nothing to do. Upon this Dr. Ryer- 
son himself moved and carried a resolution in favour of an increase, not 
only of Dr. McCaul's salary, but also of those of the other Professors, 
not one of whom had at that time a seat on the Senate. Upon the 
second occasion of a reference from Government, requesting the Senate 
to define their general recommendation of an increase to the Professors' 
salaries, the only professor present left the meeting, and Dr. Ryerson was 
also present and assenting to the progressive increase for length of service 
but without any retrospective effect, as erroneously stated by Dr. Ryer- 
son in his answer to Question 210. * The salary of the Vice-Chancellor 

these, 100 were awarded to candidates who were not at the time students in University 
College. Many of them afterwards became students in the College, but many had no con- 
nexion with it in any part of their course. 

* This is a plain statement of the facts as they occurred, which it was sought without 
success to invalidate by questions 435 to 475, suggested by the Rev. Mr. Poole. And 



8 

was fixed on the motion of Dr. Ryerson before the present holder of the 
office became resident in Toronto ; the salary of the Principal of 
Upper Canada College was determined with the concurrence of Dr. 
Ryerson before the Principal had a seat on the Senate ; and the only 
other member of the Senate receiving a salary from the University or 
Upper Canada College Funds, enjoys the same income as master in 
Upper Canada College, which had always been attached to his office for 
twenty years before he first made his appearance on the Senate as 
President of a School of Medicine, which was then the Medical Faculty 
of Victoria College.* It is obvious, therefore, that in no single instance 
is this imputation borne out by the facts. 

It is objected by all the witnesses, and in the memorial of the Metho- 
dist Conferences, that the Professors of University College are always 
appointed Examiners. I agree with the memorialists that these appoint- 
ments are objectionable, but there have been practical difficulties in the 
way, which have hitherto prevented the abandonment of the custom. 
Every person acquainted with examinations will acknowledge, as is stated 
by Dr. Cook in his cross-examination, that no Examiner can be efficient 
who has not had practical experience in teaching. An amateur, howevei 
great his attainments may be, will make a bad Examiner. I hold it 
essential that a good Examiner must be a good teacher. But good 
teachers are, unfortunately, not numerous in Canada ; and from the 
length of time over which the examinations extend, the choice is necessa- 
rily almost limited to Toronto and its immediate vicinity. Persons 
engaged in teaching cannot spare the time from their duties, and to men- 
tion this year alone, a professor of Queen's College, and one of Victoria 
College, have for this reason declined the appointment. Besides this, if 
it is objectionable that the professors should examine their own Students 
in the later years, it is equally wrong that other teachers should examine 
matriculants, some of whom have probably been their own pupils. We 
always appoint a co-examiner with the professor, and the professor always 
takes the principal part in examining the matriculants, where he certainly 
is the best that can be selected, and throws a large part of the work of 
the later years upon his colleague. Still, I fully admit the present practice 
to be objectionable ; and several of the professors have expressed to me 

again, in questions 458 and 475, and 505, 6 and 7, the whole circumstances as above related 
Avere brought out in an examination of Dr. Ryerson himself, all the documents being 
placed in his hands — the minutes of the Senate, the memorial of Dr. McCaul with the 
reference to the Senate and its answer, the subsequent action of the Government thereon, 
and the second reference to the Senate for further explanation, with its reply. Yet, after 
all this investigation the Rev. Mr. Poole is represented in the published proceedings of the 
Kingston Conference (p. 9 and 10) to have said, "in which analysis there is conclusive 
evidence, that the resolution on the increase of salaries charged on Dr. Ryerson was moved 
by the Vice-Chancellor and seconded by the Hon. Mr. Patton ; and that Dr. Ryerson had 
nothing to do with it." 

* In a paragraph of Dr. Ryerson's reply, (p. 41 of C. P.) headed " Mr. Langton and Dr. 
Wilson's misrepresentations as to the representation of Victoria College on the Senate, " 
Dr. Ryerson gives a history of the Toronto School of Medicine, and adds, "Yet. in pres- 
ence of these facts Dr. Wilson and Mr. Langton represent him (Mr. Barrett) as holding 
his seat in the Senate as a representative of Victoria College." Dr. Wilson and Mr. 
Langton never said that he now represents Victoria College : but they said that he first 
took his seat and for some time sat there as the President of the School which was at that 
time the Medical Facidty of Victoria ; thus giving three members in the interest of Victoria 
College at a time when there was only one representative of University College ; of which 
no one complained, although such an outcry is now made because four persons are at pres- 
ent on the Senate connected with University College, and only two with Victoria College. 



their desire to be relieved from this duty. I believe in former years the 
evil could hardly have been avoided j but well educated young men are 
becoming more numerous in this country now, arid I think it may ere 
long be made a general rule that no professor shall examine excejjt for 
matriculation. I may mention, however, that it is the common practice 
in the Queen's University, Ireland, to select the Examiners in rotation 
from the several Colleges — a practice which I think open to serious 
objections, unless there be, as is the case with us, a second Examiner in 
each subject. It is also worthy of remark, that the first appointment of 
Examiners, when, as now, the names of all the professors appeared in the 
list, was made on the motion of Dr. Kyerson himself. In thus alluding 
to that gentleman's action, I do not wish to infer, if this decision was 
wrong in itself, that it was any excuse for the Senate that they followed 
an evil counsel. But the fact is important in this view, that Dr. Kyerson, 
who doubtless then held the same decided opinions upon the subject 
which he does now, nevertheless saw such practical difficulties in the way 
of making any other satisfactory appointments, that he adopted the 
present system as upon the whole the best that offered itself. 

I believe I have now answered all the specific charges which have 
been brought of favouritism to one College, and have shewn how ground- 
less they are, except the last be so considered. I may add, that I know 
of no action of the Government or of the Senate, apart from the fact 
that University College is endowed by the State, which places it in a 
different position from any other College, excepting in two instances, 
necessarily arising from a joint endowment. As we occupy the same 
buildings, it is provided that the Piesident of University College shall be 
ex-officio a Member of the Committee on the grounds surrounding it, 
and that one other Member of that body shall be appointed if there be 
one on the Senate ; and as the Government have never acted upon the 
clause in the Statute giving them that power, by assigning the old Library 
for the use of either the College or the University, whilst to the Senate 
is entrusted the duty of making additions to it, a similar clause exists in 
the Statute respecting the Library Committee. 



(3.) Expenditure of the University. 

The next head of complaint which is made is the alleged extravagance 
of the expenditure upon the University and University College. It is 
argued that even if the denominational Colleges have no claim to any 
specific appropriation, and I deny that they have any, they may have at 
least a contingent interest in any surplus which may remain after the 
University and University College have been maintained in a state of 
efficiency, and which Parliament may devote annually to the support of 
Academical Education in Upper Canada, in any manner which it may 
judge to be most conducive to the interests of the country, instead 
of its being necessarily applied, as formerly, to the increase of the 
permanent fund. Whether there had been any such provision or 
not, I admit that any extravagance of expenditure which may exist 
should be enquired into and checked. It remains therefore to en- 
quire, whether the expenditure has been upon a scale dispropor- 
B 



10 

tionate to the wants of the Provincial Institutions, for directing and 
for practically carrying out the higher branches of Education. The 
principal points insisted on are the Buildings, the Library and Museum, 
the Professorial Staff, Examinations, and Scholarships. These I will 
reply to separately ; but before doing so, I must be allowed to allude to 
an implied charge against myself. Dr. E-yerson, in his evidence before 
the Committee, merely alluded in passing to the salaried Vice-Chancellor, 
Avho audited the expenditure which he had himself authorised • but in 
the printed document put forth by the Conference in support of their 
memorial, intended to produce its effect in another sphere, the same point 
is more frequently insisted upon, and it is stated that some undue influ- 
ence has been exerted to prevent the publication of the Accounts. As 
Provincial Auditor, it is certainly my duty to see that the Bursar makes 
no improper use of the public moneys, and produces vouchers for all his 
expenditure, and his accounts are accordingly examined in my office as all 
others are ; but as Auditor, I have no more power to interfere with the 
objects of the expenditure, than I have with Dr. Ryerson's distribution 
of the grants placed under his superintendence. As to the publication of 
the Accounts, the Bursar is required by law to lay them annually before 
Parliament ; and whether they are printed or not rests with the Printing 
Committee, and not with me. 

Before going into details I must also explain a point, which the public 
would never gather from the evidence of the gentlemen at whose instance 
this investigation is made, viz. : that the endowment, consisting of lands 
in various parts of the Province, requires an extensive establishment to 
manage it, and is, in fact, a department of the Government, over which 
the University authorities have no control. Whether its arrangements 
may not be economised, is a question which the Committee may ascertain 
from the evidence of the Bursar ; but as far as the University authori- 
ties are concerned, it is the net revenue only which they have to deed 
with, and this is all which at present is available for academical educa- 
tion. The revenue in the preceding evidence is spoken of as $60,000 or 
$70,000 ; and by adding to it that of Upper Canada College, it is set 
down by Dr. Ryerson as $80,000 ; but the highest amount which the 
net revenue ever reached was $56,000, in 1856, when the run after land 
was at the highest, and the average net revenue since 1853, has only 
been $48,000.* It will be for the Committee to decide, whether this 
amount is so much more than a Provincial University can require, as it 
has been argued, and whether it is sufficient to be divided amongst the 
numerous claimants, without destroying the object for which it was set 
apart. 

* How much of this amount would be left for the University, if even the present demands 
of the denominational claimants were satisfied, may be judged from their evidence. Mr. 
Nelles (Q. 407) says he wants £2500 more than his present income, (leaving it doubtful 
whether this is in addition to what he already receives in the estimates.) If Queen's, 
Trinity, and Regiopolis, received as much, supposing there to be no other claimants, 
the whole fund would be exhausted, and whence are the University and University College 
to derive their income ? Dr. Ryerson contemplates with satisfaction ten separate Colleges 
with £1500 each, requiring $60,000, without any provision for the University. Dr. Cook 
(Q. 18 and 44) proposes £6500 for the University and College, including Scholarships, ot 
which £1250 is to be for the University. He also proposes that the Denominational 
Colleges shall each receive one-half of what is allowed to University College. To 
accomplish this would require an income of $70,000 ; but it is idle to suppose that the 
four existing Colleges would be the only claimants. 



11 

Buildings^ 

It is objected generally to the expenditure on the buildings, that the 
Act which contemplates only additions to the present buildings, does not 
authorise new ones on a new site. Unfortunately, in the same session, 
when the University Amendment Act was passed, another Act* gave the 
Government authority to take possession of the property for Provincial 
purposes, and the University and College were ejected, and temporarily 
accommodated in the Parliament Buildings. When, in 1855, the Seat of 
Government returned to Toronto, the College was again moved, and tem- 
porary additions were made to the old Medical School, which rendered it 
available for a time ; but this had become perfectly inadequate to the 
accommodation of the College before the new buildings were ready ; and 
the frame additions were so temporary in their construction, that the 
Bursar has reported to me, now that it has returned into his possession, 
that it would be more economical to pull them down and sell the material, 
than to put them in effectual repair. The stone building, originally 
intended for the College, is still in the occupation of Government for 
another public object. If then the Act is to be interpreted in the literal 
sense given to it by Dr. Cook and others, there were no buildings to 
which to make the additions. This, however, is not the view to take of 
the question. The Act had established a central University and a Col- 
lege, endowed from the public funds, with a staff of efficient professors. 
It was necessary to provide a building for their occupation, and especially 
to provide the means of accommodating resident students, without which 
one of the great advantages of a University education would have been 
lost. Such an institution was not intended to be of an ephemeral charac- 
ter, to be moved about as convenience dictated, from one public building 
to another ; and as the endowment fortunately supplied the means, it has 
been provided with a durable home, worthy of the position it holds in 
the country, and of a still higher destiny which the rapidly increasing 
number of its students shows that it is destined to achieve. The Govern- 
ment of the day, therefore, wisely, as I think, exercised the undoubted 
power given by the Act, and authorised the Senate to expend £75,000 
out of the Permanent Fund for this purpose. 

Library and Museum. 

The Government also authorized the expenditure, from the same 
source, of £20,000 upon a Library and Museum. It is objected that 
such an expenditure is foreign to the purposes for which the University 
was established ; but I can hardly think that the Committee and the 
Legislature will entertain that view. There is not a University or Col- 
lege in the world of any standing, which has not already acquired, or is 
not accumulating, a Library and Museum, as essential to the prosecution 
of the higher studies. Dr. Cook partially, it would seem, admits of a 
Library, but he would have it to belong to the College and not to the 
University, and would give out of the endowment a similar sum to all 
other Colleges for their Libraries. Now, it must be remembered, that 

* This Act is 16 Vic, cap. 161. to which Dr. Ryerson (p. 34 C. P.) ridiculously says 
that Mr. Langton refers, as authorising the erection of University Buildings. 



12 

although the University and the College are distinct in their functions, 
the College, or teaching body, forms an essential part of the University 
scheme, as established by the Act, and whether the Library be supposed 
to belong to the one body or to the other, is immaterial, provided it be 
established. As the University, however, represents the whole country, 
as the heads of all educational institutions, and the representatives of all 
denominations find a place in it, I think it better that the management 
and control should be vested in the Senate than in the College. But to 
expend the money in forming five or six collections is utterly to ignore 
the great use of a public Library. The ordinary text books used in 
education, the classical authors in various languages, the books of refer- 
ence in common use, are not so numerous as to be beyond the reach of 
any College, or even of many private individuals ; but there is another 
class of books which you will not find there, consisting principally of 
books of reference of a more special character, not so often used it is true, 
but as essential when occasions for consulting them occur ; and those 
numerous periodical publications issued by learned and scientific bodies 
in various parts of the world, in which almost all new views and discov- 
eries first make their appearance, and without access to which a scholar 
or a man of science in this country would have to remain contented with 
his ignorance, till, years after all Europe had been turning their attention 
to something new, he gathered the information from some digest pub- 
lished in a more popular and accessible form. Such publications, often 
of a very costly kind from their limited circulation, can only be found in 
a public Library • and, until Canada possesses such a collection, she must 
be content to remain in a position of inferiority, ill adopted to her grow- 
ing wealth and intelligence. Such a collection the Senate has been autho- 
rised to form and is now acquiring, and it has provided for giving the 
public the freest access to it.'" 

Professsors in University College. 

It is argued also that the professorial staff in University College is 
beyond the wants of the country, and the charge excessive. As to the 
rate of remuneration I may fortunately appeal to the appellants them- 
selves. Dr. Cook admits that the salary of a Professor should be at 
least £500 a-year, and that he would rather see it £600, and none of the 
other gentlemen have appeared to dispute his views. It is true that in a 
later portion of his evidence, when driven to the necessity of keeping his 
proposed expenses within a sum to which he would limit the expenditure 
of the University and College, he has been compelled to confine himself to 

* The expenditure upon the Library and Museum by the University of Toronto was 
specially excepted to by the petitioners, though both Dr. Cook and Mr. Nelles, when 
asked what they would do with an additional grant, naturally enough specify this as an 
important acquisition for their own Colleges ; and though Dr. Ryerson, in the celebrated 
letter to Mr. Hincks, would make it imperative on his proposed University to expend at 
least £1000 a-year for this object. Now, however, he appears to look upon the question 
from a less exalted point of view, for he says, in his reply, (p. 35, C. P.,) "the law no 
more authorises the purchase of a Provincial Library and a Provincial Museum out of a 
fund designed for College education, than out ot the funds designed for Grammar and 
Common School education." Does the Superintendent intend hv this sentence modestly 
to confess, that, when the law authorised the expenditure of £200 a-year out of the Com- 
mon School Fund for a Museum, it was not quite legal to expend thousands upon a Mu- 
seum and Gallery of Pictures at the Normal School \ 



13 

the lower amount ; but I would rather accept his opinion on the abstract 
question, than when modified to suit a predetermined result. Now the 
amounts approved of by Dr. Cook are very nearly those at which the 
salaries of the Professors in University College are fixed by the present 
Order in Council, viz. : £500, rising with length of service to £650. It 
is therefore only against the number of Professors that there can be any 
cause of complaint, and Dr. Cook's proposition is to reduce them by 
striking off five, viz. : History and English Literature, Modern Lan- 
guages, Agriculture, Meteorology and Oriental Languages, and by com- 
bining the present three Professorships in the Natural Sciences into two." 
To a certain extent I agree with Dr. Cook, but on othei points I differ 
from him entirely. I do not believe that the Professorships of Agricul- 
ture, which have been established either here or in any other University, 
have answered the expectations of those who founded them ■ and I do 
not think that it is in the nature of the subject that they should. Me- 
teorology is also too limited a subject to form an exclusive chair, and all 
that is necessary of it might well be taught by the Professors of allied 
sciences. The history of the foundation of the chair may not be known 
to the Committee. The P>ritish Government having established, and for 
years maintained, the Meteorological Observatory, determined to abandon 
it. The Provincial Government, feeling that we had just cause to be 
proud of the results obtained there, gave an annual grant for its mainte- 
nance, and proposed to connect it with the University. When the pro- 
position was submitted to the Senate, Dr. McCaul, the Yice-Chancellor, 
moved, seconded by Dr. Ryerson — "That the Senate will gladly co- 
operate with the Government in carrying out the plan for the organiza- 
tion of the Observatory, which has been approved by his Excellency the 
Governor-General, and will accordingly pass the necessary Statute for 
the establishment of Graduate Scholarships, — and thus, as proposed in 
the above-mentioned communication, contribute towards the expense of 
the establishment the amount of the stipends of the scholars, in addition 
to one-third of the salary of the Director of the Observatory and Profes- 
sor of Meteorology, <kc, (fee." The idea of the Scholarships was dropped 
on further consideration, but the Professorship remains, and the subject 
has been intioduced into the University course, but only as an optional 
one, not because it was considered an essential part of academical study, 
but because there was a Chair in the College, and it was thought some 

* It is somewhat singular that, when Dr. Cook is proposing a scheme for University 
College,, he should say, (Q. 26,) " There should be a Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy united ;" but when asked for his disposition of any money he could obtain 
from the University Fund, for Queen's, (Q. 279), he should* claim "a Professor of Mathe- 
matics and another of Natural Philosophy." So also he would class together, under one 
chair, at Toronto, Natural History and Chemistry, which have no connexion, but at 
Kingston he would separate Greek from Latin. He proposes, in short, to reduce the 
Professors in University College from ten to five, and to increase those at Queen's from 
five to seven. 

Dr. Ryerson also, in the Hincks' letter, besides four Professors in the College, proposes 
to constitute University Professors in " Ancient and Modern Philosophy and Literature, 
General History, (not yet discovered to be unadapted to be taught by lectures,) Natural 
History, Astronomy, Political Economy, Civil Engineering, Agriculture, &c." 

In the Queen's Colleges, Ireland, which being founded by Government within the last 
twenty years, may be taken as a fair test of the requirements of a modern college, there 
are twelve Professorships in the Faculty of Arts, besides Political Economy, which is 
included in the Faculty of Law, viz. ; Greek, Latin, History and English Literature, 
Modern Languages, Celtic Languages, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, €hemistry, 
Natural History, Logic aud Metaphysics, Mineralogy and Geology. Agriculture, 



14 

Undergraduates might wish to pursue the study, especially those who 
were intending to teach Grammar Schools, in which a system of meteor- 
ological observations has been established. I think that it was a mistake 
to connect the Observatory with the College, but as long as Government 
maintains it, I see no objection to its continued connexion with the 
University, and the Director, if disconnected with the College, might 
very properly have a seat in the Senate.""' I agree also with Dr. Cook 
that the study of Oriental Languages is not a necessary portion of a Col- 
lege education, and the Senate has made it optional throughout. It more 
properly belongs to the Faculty of Divinity. 

On two other points I partially agree with Dr. Cook. If funds were 
insufficient, two professors in the Natural Sciences might be made to take 
the place of three, although I would adopt a different arrangement, viz., 
Geology and Natural History which are intimately allied, and Chemistry 
and Mineralogy, which latter can only be studied effectively in connexion 
with the former. But it is only rarely that you can obtain a man equally 
and thoroughly versed in those separate branches, and in almost all 
Universities separate chairs exist, and the subjects are even more 
subdivided than with us. 

Again, a chair of Modern Languages, in the- sense of teaching the 
languages themselves, and not the principles of comparative philology, 
appears to me very inadvisable. It could only be efficiently filled under 
very peculiar circumstances. But when Dr. Cook and other witnesses 
condemn the study of Modern Languages in a University, I differ from 
them toto coelo. I believe that there should be no single Professorship, 
but Lectureships in each separate language, or two or more combined in 
one lectureship, according to the individuals that can be procured to 
teach. French, in a country circumstanced like Canada, may well be 
considered essential, and now that Latin has ceased to be the common 
language of educated men, and three quarters of the learning and science 
of the world is published in French or German, no man should pass 
through a University who has not acquired at least one of them. 

History and English Literature I also consider essential, and I cannot 
conceive that there is any thing in the study of these two subjects, which 
makes them less adapted to be taught by lectures, as argued by Dr. 
Byerson, than in that of any other subject of education. I cannot indeed 
imagine that Dr. Byerson himself perceives any such difference, for when 
the question is put to him (No. 13) he diverges into a disquisition upon 
German Universities, and admits that his remark applies to Lectures 
"in the German Sense" as distinguished from the usual meaning of the 
word. In the " University Sense," it seems, he does not think History 
a subject which cannot be taught by Lectures. Dr. Byerson has tri- 
umphantly quoted the report of the Queen's University Commissioner's, 
which recommends the abolition of the Chair of Agriculture, but he 
ought to have added that they do not recommend the abolition of those 
of Modern Languages and of English Literature and History, nor the 
compression of the three Chairs of the Natural Sciences into two.t As 

* The only part of the expense of maintaining the Observatory, borne by the Univer- 
sity, is one-third of the Director's salary; yet its staff is included amongst the forty-five 
"regular salaried officers" enumerated in that curious piece of statistics, in which Mr. 
Poole, and Dr. Kyerson on his authority, try to swell the real numbers, by including 
almost every body twice, and some three times under different titles. 

f Mr. Langton might have met Dr. Ryerson's quotation from the Irish Commissioners 
by a reference to the report of the New r Brunswick Commissioners, of whom Dr. Ryerson 



15 

to the importance of those subjects, I shall have occasion to return to 
them when I come to the subject of options. I would only now remark 
that the witnesses who have been heard in favour of the Latin and 
Greek, and Mathematics, being the proper Studies of a University, and 
most of the rest mere works of supererogation, run counter to the daily 
growing opinion of all the best authorities upon University Education in 
Europe, as I shall show from the published opinions of the Commission- 
ers on the English Universities. 

In thus stating my concurrence with some points of Dr. Cook's scheme, 
I wish to be understood as explaining what would be my recommenda- 
tion, if called upon to organize a new college in circumstances similar to 
those of University College, and what should be kept in view for future 
arrangements, as opportunity offers But I by no means wish to say that 
existing professors, who have accepted their offices on the faith of the 
Government, should be dismissed, and I feel convinced that neither would 
the Committee recommend, nor the Legislature sanction such injustice. 
It must also be borne in mind that the University, which is charged with 
extravagance, is in no way responsible for this organization, which was 
adopted before it had any existence. The Professor of Agriculture and 
the Lecturer on Oriental languages are amongst the oldest of those 
connected with the teaching staff, and all the other chairs which Dr. 
Cook would abolish, with the exception of that of Meterology, formed 
the establishment which the Act provided should be supported out of the 
endowment. The University is not even responsible for by far the greater 
part of the increase which has been made to the rate of salaries, though I 
for one do not think it excessive. In the printed document put forth by 
the Conference in support of their memorial, the salaries of the Professors 
at the passing of the University Act are set down at £4497, including 
Librarian and servants. This does not give quite a correct view of the 
case, as the salaries of the four newly appointed Professors only appear 
for seven months in the accounts of that year ; but Dr. Hyerson, desirous 
of shewing a still larger increase, goes back to 1850, before the addition 
of the staff which the act of 1853 provides for. He states that "it 
cannot be claimed that the Faculty of Arts is more efficient for the legi- 
timate purposes of a University College than it was in 1850, yet, since 
then, its expenses have been increased from £3350 to £7670," leaving 
out of view the fact that in the meantime five new Professorships and a 
Tutorship have been created, some of which, even in Dr. Cook's view, 
are necessary ; and giving the present cost, however arrived at, £1420 
greater than the greatest amount paid to Professors in any one year. 
The true difference is this. The salaries of the Professors and Lecturer, as 
established in 1853, were £3930. From the 1st of January, 1854, the 
salaries of the newly appointed Professors were put upon the same 
footing as those of the old ones, making the amount £4430, and this was 
done, be it observed, before the Senate was constituted, and by the same 
Ministry who are represented to have made, six months before, such 
generous provision for the Denominational Colleges, which we, it is said, 
have rendered of none effect. The present salaries, * including the Classical 

was one. It appears that not only did he recommend to Mr. Hincks, in 1852, Modern Litera- 
ture, History and Agriculture, as proper subjects for lectures in a Canadian University, but 
as late as 1854, he included, in the scheme designed for New Brunswick, all those subjects. 
* The next addition to the cost was the Order in Council of 1855, which added a per 
centage to all Government Salaries in the Province. The last addition, the only one recom- 
mended by the Senate, has only amounted to $800. 



16 

Tutor and Professor of Meteorology, since added, are £6070, being an 
increase of 44 per cent, upon those of 1854, and 54 per cent, upon those 
of 1853. This is not more than the increase made in almost all salaries 
during the same period. In a somewhat allied branch of the Public 
Service, for instance, the salaries of the educational staffs, east and west, 
were £900 in 1853, and the same officers now receive £1775 and £1800, 
respectively, being an increase of 100 per cent., without reckoning the 
increased number of the staff. 



Salaries in the University. 



Besides the salaries of the Professors in the College, there are three 
connected with the University, the Vice-Chancellor's, the Librarian's, and 
the Registrar's, which Dr. Cook would abolish, or materially reduce. 
He admits that, if the Librarian gives his whole time, he must have a 
sufficient salary ; but it is suggested that some one of the students might 
be employed, and that he might also perform the duties of Registrar, 
whilst the salary of the Vice-Chancellor he would abolish altogether. It 
is true that, if the Library were made a mere college library, it might be 
locked up, as I have known to be the practice in small colleges, and a 
Librarian might be. in attendance for half an hour a day to give oul 
books, and a promising student might well have some small allowance for 
attending to this duty. But if it is to be open to the public, which I 
submit to be a much moi e proper application of public funds, it is clear 
that a competent person must be employed at a fair salary. To appoint 
a student would be to injure him for life, as interfering with his studies. 
The Registrar is an equally necessary officer, and he is not overpaid for 
the work that falls upon him. Gentlemen, who are not acquainted with 
the practical details, can easily get rid of the office, or throw its duties 
upon another officer, whom, be it remembered, they have already de- 
clared to be unnecessary for the University ; but the fact, that two 
Registrars have already resigned, upon the ground that they could not 
afford to devote the necessary time to the duties of the office, is enough 
to show that that the work is not overpaid. In fact I do not believe 
that any competent person would undertake the office permanently, 
although the salary may be an object to a young man at first starting in 
life, and therefore prove a useful reward for distinguished young gradu- 
ates. As to the Vice-Chancellor's salary, I admit that, if funds arc 
insufficient, it is the first that should be reduced. Not that it is too high 
for the duties that fall on that officer, but that any person who is worthy 
of filling the office, would accept the labour and responsibility from zeal 
for the institution, and for the honoiable position which it gives him. I 
found the office in existence with a salary attached, when I came to 
reside in Toronto. Since I was appointed no member of the University 
will be found to say that I have not given full work for my hire ; but if 
there had been no salary I should have equally accepted the office, and f 
trust I should as zealously have discharged its duties, as a labour of love ; 
but it has not been found prudent in jn-actice to rely upon the gratuitous 
performance of important duties, and therefore I think that a salary was 
wisely attached to the Vice-Chancellorship. 



17 

Examiners. 

The next head of expenditure specially referred to, is the allowance to 
Examiners — officers who, it is thought, may also be obtained gratuitously. 
I have already alluded to the difficulty of obtaining proper persons on 
any terms, but, unless for an adequate remuneration, it would be impos- 
sible. Let us look into the question of cost, which was in 1857, $2160, 
reduced in 1858, to $2000, and in 1859, to $1760, and let us compare it 
with the cost in similar bodies elsewhere. I find in the estimates of 
1857, [1857 — XXXIV] the sum set down for Examiners in the Queen's 
University, Ireland, £1510, stg., or $7348, and it is stated in a note 
that, in the previous year, 44 persons were examined. In the Report of 
the same University for 1860, the cost of Examiners is estimated at 
£1450, stg., or $7056, and the number of students examined during the 
previous year is given as 78. Taking the latter year as the most favoura- 
ble, our examiners, in 1859, examined more than twice the number at 
just one-fourth of the cost. Again in the same estimates, I find the 
Examiners in the University of London set down for £2560, stg., or 
$12,458. I find also in its Calendar of 1859, that in the year 1857, 151 
students matriculated, and 109 degrees were conferred, and allowing a 
number equal to the matriculants for those who came up to the interme- 
diate examination, which is not given, these Examiners must have 
examined 410 persons, at the rate, in the aggregate, of about $30 per 
head, whilst ours were paid at the rate of less than $10 per head. It 
may be proper to state in regard to this comparison, that a considerable 
part of the expenses of the University of London is paid by fees, and 
reducing the estimate for the Examiners, which is about half of the 
whole cost, by the same proportion of the fees, the cost to the country is 
with them only about $22 per head, whilst if our matriculation fees are 
deducted, the similar charge is reduced to about $8.50 per head. Per- 
haps, in consequence of my habits as Auditor, I may be excused for 
entering into these financial details, although I admit that cost is not 
always the test of efficiency. But when the question is raised, whether 
the Examiners are overpaid, the true test of their work is the number of 
students they have to examine, and I cannot think that either our learn- 
ing or our wealth is so inferior in Canada, that $10 is too high a remu- 
neration here, for services which in London and Dublin are paid at the 
rate of $30 and $90 respectively. 

Scholarships. 

The remaining item of expenditure specially referred to as extrava- 
gant, is the allowance for scholarships, and here I admit, that, if the 
allegations of the Petitioners were true, a strong case would have been 
made out against the University. But they are not true. I do not, for 
a moment suppose, that Dr. Green would state any thing to the Commit- 
tee, which he did not believe to be correct ; but having undertaken to 
give evidence upon a subject, with which he had made himself but 
slightly acquainted, he has fallen into an erior. I do not know how he 
has obtained the proportion which he has stated, between the scholar- 
ships and students, 34 amongst 37, but I suspect it has been by a pro- 
cess, which he himself must have perceived to be a dangerous one, viz. : 
o 



18 

by taking the number of scholarships from the returns of the University, 
and that of the students from the returns of the College.* An exami- 
nation of the same official documents would have shewn him that in 
1856, the year referred to, 76 students were examined, and 35 scholar- 
ships awarded, or, excluding those who were not entitled to compete for 
scholarships, 35 were awarded amongst 61. This is undoubtedly a high 
proportion. When the University was first established upon its present 
basis, the Senate, acting upon the authority given them by the Act, 
established 90 scholarships. t The number may certainly have been dis- 
proportioned to the students continuing on from the old University, 
but not to what they might be expected to become, or to what they 
would have been, had the denominational Colleges thought fit to send 
their students to compete. Believing the number, however, to be too great 
under existing circumstances, one of my first measures, after I became 
Vice-Chancellor, in 1856, was to reduce the number offered for competi- 
tion from 90 to 61, and I would have made a still greater reduction, with 
the view of making subsequent additions, as they might be required, had 
not the general feeling of the Senate been against it. I am happy, how- 
ever, to be able to state, that if 61 was too large in 1856, it will not be 
found to be so in 1860, the number of students having grown up to the 
provision made for them in this respect, as was, no doubt, contemplated 
when the scholarships were originally founded. But as this enquiry is 
not taking place in 1856, when the new organization had just been com- 
pleted, but after it has been in operation for five years, (a small period, it 
must be allowed, for the growth of a University,) it will be necessary to 
show how the Scholarships have been distributed in the succeeding years. 
The following table will show the number awarded in each succeeding 
year, and the number of students entitled to compete for them, with 
the proportion between the two, and the amount per student which 
the Scholarships have cost, with a view to comparison with other analo- 
gous institutions. 



o 



No. of No. of Proportion of 

Scholarships Students Scholarships Cost in Cost per 

awarded, competing. to competitors. the year. Student. 



1855 33 ... 64 

1856 35 ... 61 

1857 48 ... 123 

1858 51 ... 143 

1859 45 ... 196 



1 to 1.94 $3,200 $50 

1 to 1.75 4,633 76 

1 to 2.56 4,973 40 

1 to 2.80 6,140 43 

1 to 4.35 6,013 30 



"N. B. — As the financial year and the scholastic year do not correspond, 
the proportions of Scholarships to Students, and of cost per Student, do 
not exactly agree. 

* In answer to Question 501, Mr. Poole shews, that Dr. Green did in fact obtain his 
figures in the way indicated, including amongst the students only those of University 
College, but amongst the scholarships those in Law and Medicine and others awarded to 
students who had no connexion with the College. 

t In the proceedings at the Conference at Kingston, the Rev. Mr. Poole states (p. 10 
C. P.) that the Globe, Mr. Langton, and Dr. "Wilson charged Dr. Ryerson with originating 
the expenditure on Scholarships. Not only did neither Dr. Wilson nor Mr. Langton 
make any such charge, but Mr. Langton expressly stated to the Committee (Q. 476,) that 
Dr. Ryerson's motion had no such effect. 



19 

I will now compare this statement with what is done in other 
Universities.* With the University of London it is not easy to make a 
comparison, as its arrangements differ from ours in two essential particu- 

* In his reply, (pp. 36 and 37,) Dr. Ryerson has several paragraphs headed " Mr. 
Langton's mistatements," "Mr. Langton's misrepresentations," &c, endeavouring to 
show that there is no analogy between the Toronto Scholarships and those of other Univer- 
versities. In each case, however, Mr. Langton, has distinctly shewed wherein the 
differences consisted. They are principally threefold : 

(1.) In all the older English Universities, the scholarships are held for a certain term of 
years ; in the Queen's Colleges alone, they are competed for annually as at Toronto, 
— a system which has this advantage, that it requires the students to keep up their acquire- 
ments, and does not permit them, as is too frequently the case in England, to relax their 
exertions upon obtaining the prize. This difference, however, has been taken advantage of 
to magnify the apparent number of Scholarships established by the University of Toronto, 
as the eight Scholarships annually offered for Undergraduates in Arts, count as thirty-two 
separate Scholarships, whereas on the other system, at the same cost, they would only 
count as eight. Thus also, a student who annually succeeded in obtaining a scholarship 
throughout his course, is said at Toronto to have taken five Scholarships ; but in England 
he would only have been said to have gained one, which he would have held for five years . 

(2.) In the British Universities, the Scholarships are principally attached to a College, 
and not to the University. Here, also, the advantage is in favour of the system adopted 
by the University of Toronto, as on the former plan, the competitors are limited to a 
comparatively small circle, whereas, on the latter, the Scholarships are open to all attend- 
ing the University. The Oxford Commissioners have proposed to remedy this, by making 
all the Scholarships, (though still attached to the Colleges,) open for competition to mem- 
bers of other Colleges, which, in a few instances, was already the case. It is difficult to see 
in what essential particular these differ from University Scholarships. 

(3.) In the British Universities, many Scholarships are limited to "founder's kin," to 
certain schools or to certain counties, as was proposed in the original draft of the Statute 
for the University of Toronto. Of late years, however, the Universities and Royal Com- 
missioners have endeavoured to abolish this exclusive arrangement, and to throw them all 
open unreservedly. 

Dr. Ryerson, however, has imagined a further distinction, viz., that the British Scholar- 
ships are not founded by the State, but by individual benefactors. Now, the University 
endowment here was created by George III., as that of Dublin was by Queen Elizabeth, 
and those of the two principal Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge by Henry VIII. , 
whilst the Queen's Colleges, Ireland, and the University of London, were endowed 
by Queen Victoria. Many of the minor Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, also 
owe their funds to royal, or quasi-royal benefactors; and if these endowments have 
been also largely increased by individual beneficence, it only effects the question to 
this extent, that the original foundations have hitherto tied the hands of the University 
authorities, and have rendered it necessary for the State, which did not originally provide 
the funds, to interfere for their beneficial application. The question is not an antiquarian 
one of the origin of each Scholarship ; but the Legislature having endowed a University in 
Canada, with all the necessary aids to its successful operation, which in England were partly 
provided by private benefactors, the simple question arises — are these aids extravagant, as 
compared with those afforded to the students in the English Universities ? and the com- 
parison shows that they are not. It shows, moreover, that the Oxford Commissioners 
recommend that the old foundations, private and royal, shall be so far diverted from their 
original purpose, as to increase the appropriation for Scholarships far beyond what is 
provided at Toronto, at the same time rendering them open to all, so as to make them 
closely analogous to University Scholarships, which are the only ones the foundation of 
which i* authorised by the charter of the University of Toronto. 

Dr. Ryerson further objects to the fairness of Mr. Langton's quotations from the Oxford 
Commissioners, inasmuch as the section from which his extracts are made is headed, 
" Application of College revenues to stimulate and reward those who have not yet entered 
the University,'" inferring that these scholarships are therefore something quite different 
from those gained by the Toronto students during their course through Hue University. It 
is astonishing that a person occupying Dr. Ryerson's position should descend to so petty a 
cavil. In the previous section, the Commissioners have been treating of fellowships, the 
rewards offered to persons who have completed the University course, — the aggregate annual 
value of which is stated by Dr. Jewitt, (Ev. p. 34,) to be £108,000, sterling, but to which in 
Canada we have nothing analagous except five Bachelor Scholarships tenable for one year. 
In the next section, they treat of Scholarships, or the rewards held out to those entering the 
University, and destined to aid in their support whilst prosecuting their studies, and they 
head it as above quoted. The Scholarships there spoken of are in their objects precisely 
similar to those established by the University of Toronto, that is, they are designed to 
stimulate and reward industrious students, and to make a University education accessible 
to such good men as would otherwise be unable to afford it ; but those at Toronto have the 
advantage of keeping up the stimulus throughout the course by annual examinations. 



20 

lars. 1st. The University of London was founded for the purpose of 
giving scholastic honours to students in a great number of Institutions 
already existing on their own endowments, and others which might be 
founded. The State only proposed to provide an organization for the 
encouragement of learning, and not for the support of either Teachers or 
Students. In Canada, on the other hand, both objects were contemplated. 
Scholarships, therefore, many of which already existed in the separate 
Colleges, were, in the University of London, a secondary consideration. 
2nd. Their scholarships are tenable for two or three years, whilst ours 
must be competed for annually. As our course, therefore, is one of four 
years, to institute a fair comparisoon with the usual English system, our 
sixty scholarships should only count as fifteen, or theirs should be 
increased in proportion to the number of years for which they are held. 
Strictly speaking, they have only nine Scholarships ; but there are eight 
Exhibitions, ranging from .£30 to £40 stg., which are the same thing 
under another name. But there are always forty individuals holding the 
seventeen Scholarships and Exhibitions, and it is the same thing for our 
purpose, whether a student upon examination obtains a Scholarship and 
holds it for three years, or whether he has to contend at the end of every 
year for the continued possession of it. With this explanation, it appears 
that in the University of London, forty Scholarships are held by about 
400 students, or by about one in ten, and at a cost of about $20 per 
student, — a much less proportion than with us, but by no means at so 
much less a cost. 

A case much more nearly resembling our own is to be found in the 
Queen's University, Ireland. The circumstances of the two countries are 
not very dissimilar. The comparative poverty of the country, the general 
absence of good endowed schools, which form such a remarkable feature 
in the educational position of England, and the great denominational 
differences which exist there, are all strong points of resemblance, and 
dictated the same policy, of not only establishing a central University, 
but of endowing here one and there three Colleges, entirely free from 
denominational influences. The recent origin, also, of both Universities, 
is favourable to a fair comparison. The only difference so far as relates 
to the subject immediately before us is, that here the Scholarships are 
founded by the University, and may be held by the students of any 
College, or even by a person attending none, whilst there, each endowed 
College has its own set of Scholarships. I think there can be little 
doubt that in this respect ours is the better and more liberal system. In 
each of the three Colleges, there are endowed by the State, ten senior 
Scholarships of £40, and forty-five junior ones, ranging in value from £15 
to £24. They are annual, and, as with us, are not all necessarily awarded. 
I have not found perfect annual returns from these Colleges, and from 
Galway none which give the Scholarships in a reliable shape ; but I 
subjoin a statement for the last two years I can find for the Colleges at 
Cork and Belfast, in a similar form to that which I have given for the 
University of Toronto : 

Scholarships No. of Com- CoBt per 

awarded. petitors. Proportion. Cost. Student. 

Cork, 1856 44 ... 144 ... 1 to 3.27 $6,944 $48 

1859 47 ... 125 ... 1 to 2.66 6,792 54 

Belfast, 1857 51 ... 153 ... 1 to 3.00 Cost not given, but as the en- 

' iokq a Q 1 *Q 1 + ^ o k o dowment is the same, it must 

loou to ... LO& ... i to o. o O be in a very similar proportion . 



21 

I find also a return from all the three Colleges, giving the number of 
their students holding Scholarships and Exhibitions, for every year, from 
1850, including apparently the Exhibitions given by the University. I 
subjoin the substance of it at three periods, to show the increase of stu- 
dents, and the decrease of cost per head, as compared with vis : 

Three Colleges, 1850 132 ... 220 ... 1 to 1.66 $74 

1855 156 ... 307 ... 1 to 1.96 57 

1859 153 ... 385 ... 1 to 2.51 50 

Thus it will be seen that even at the commencement, the compaiison 
was a little in our favour, and that we in five years have reduced the 
proportion to one in 4 J, and the average cost to $30, whilst they in ten 
years have only reduced them to one in 2J and $50. 

It may be useful to institute a similar comparison with the older 
Universities, though the data are not so accessible, and the circumstances 
are more various. At Trinity, Dublin, it will be seen from the calendar 
of 1857, that there are 70 Scholarships on the foundation, 107 Scholarships 
and exhibitions not on the foundation, and 30 Sizarships. As in the 
other older Universities they are not competed for annually, but the 
number of Scholarships, Exhibitions and Sizarships held are 207 amongst 
about 850 students in 1857, but the number more generally exceeds 
1000, or about 1 to 5, — nearly the same proportion as with us last year ; 
whilst the annual value, which varies somewhat, may be set down as 
£7,500 sterling, or, on the average, 36 per student, a not very dissimilar 
proportion. 

Frqm the report of the Royal Commissioners, who themselves could 
not always obtain reliable information, it appears that at Cambridge, 
including the Colleges and the University, there are about 645 Scholar- 
ships, or 1 to about 2 students. The cost is not accessible except for 
Emmanuel College, which, having no fixed Scholarships, divides annually 
£1000 sterling, amongst about 80 under-graduates, or about at the rate 
of $60 per student. This statement, however, as well as that for Trinity, 
Dublin, cannot be exactly compared with us, as most of the Scholarships 
are tenable for some time after graduation, and many are of inconsidera- 
ble value, and two or more may be held by the same individual. But on 
the other hand, the statement for Cambridge does not include Exhibi- 
tions and Sizarships, which are very numerous. St. John's alone, with 
from 200 to 300 under-graduates, has, according to the Commissioners, 
124 Scholarships, and besides this, according to the Cambridge Calendar, 
about 100 Exhibitions, one of which is worth £100 a-year, and four are 
worth £70 : and it is to its wealth in this respect that it mainly owes 
the distinction of producing even more high honor men, many of whom 
are from the humbler classes, than its great rival Trinity. 

At Oxford the information is more precise in some respects, and more 
capable of comparison with ourselves, as the number of %mder -graduates 
holding Scholarships is given, as well as the total cost. In the statistical 
table appended to Mr. Heywood's edition of the recommendations of the 
Oxford Commissioners, the number of under-graduates " on the founda- 
tion," which will include most Scholars, but not Exhibitionists, is given 
as 233, and the whole number of undergraduates as 1222, or one in 5A, 
and the value of their stipends is given as £8,700 sterling, or at the 



22 

average rate of $31 per student. This it will be perceived is just the 
average rate in the University of Toronto in the year 1859, but the 
Royal Commissioners do not think even this enough. Their thirty-filth 
recommendation is: " That any surplus remaining, after making due 
provision for the Fellows, should be applied to increase the number and 
value of Scholarships, and that no Scholarship should be of less amount 
than £50 a-yeajr." In a body of their report, (p. 94, et seq. Heywood's 
edition) they enter upon this subject at large ; they say: "We are of 
opinion that it is a matter of the highest importance, that Scholarships 
should be augmented where they are of inconsiderable value, and that 
they should also be greatly increased in number." "To the efficiency of 
the Colleges, open Scholarships, to supply good learners, are as essential 
as open Fellowships [in Canada, we may substitute as liberal salaries,] 
are to supply good teachers. Some judgment of the influence of open 
Scholarships on the utility and honor of a College, may be formed from 
the amount of University distinctions obtained by the several Colleges. 
It will be found, that they more nearly correspond to the number of the 
open Scholarships offered to undergraduates, than to the other merits and 
advantages of the respective societies." Then follow the changes they 
recommend in the several endowments, and they add : " By these simple 
changes we calculate that nearly 500 Scholorships of the value of £50 
a-year or more, besides rooms, might be provided, of which at least 100 
would become vacant annually." Supposing that these Scholarships 
were so arranged, as with us, that the fortunate candidates had to con- 
tend annually for the retention of them, instead of holding them for five 
years without further competition, the whole 500 would be competed for 
annually by about 1200 students, or they would be about as 1 to 2^ 
students, at an average cost of $100 per student, as compared with ours 
last year, 1 to 4J, at an average cost of $30 per student, which Dr. Cook 
would further reduce to a sum which, even if our students never in- 
creased beyond the present number, would only be $10 per student. 

I must apologise for the length at which I have treated this subject, 
but it is one of vital importance, and even more so, perhaps, in this 
country than in England. The University Act authorised the Senate to 
endow Scholarships for the aid and encouragement of students, and that 
it was no niggardly endowment that was originally contemplated is shown 
by the intention expressed in the Bill to endow two for each county in 
Upper Canada. This clause was withdrawn, principally at my own 
instigation, not because it was excessive in amount, but because it was 
falling back upon the old idea, which was being abandoned in England, 
of close Scholarships. The Senate, therefore, created these open Scho- 
larships, more truly open than those recommended by the Oxford Com- 
missioners, inasmuch as, though obtainable by any one, theirs can only 
be held in a particular college, whilst ours, — be it said once for all, in 
spite of the repeated assertions of different witnesses, that they are 
intended to lure students away from the minor colleges — are unconnected 
with any college. A student of Queen's or Victoria may hold one, if he 
can obtain it, and may continue to pursue his studies there ; or a young 
man who can come up to the standard may hold one, whether he belong 
to any college or not, and many are so held. All that we require is that 
he shall compete with the whole Province before us, and that he shall 



23 

proceed to his Degree in the Provincial University, from whose endow- 
ment he has benefited." 

I have now gone through the principal items in which we are accused 
of having misappropriated the University endowment, and I am quite 
content that the Committee shall judge between us. Some minor items 
are also instanced, as a Commission of Inquiry with which the Univer- 
sity had nothing to do ; and Incidentals, an item ingeniously made up by 
combining the contingent expenses of managing the endowment with the 
incidental expenses of the University and College, although given sepa- 
rately in the accounts. Many of the minor items are exceptional in 
their character, and others have been reduced. If any remain which are 
excessive, let them be reduced also ; but let not the efficiency of the 
teaching staff of the College, and the power of the University to reward 
and encourage meritorious students, be impaired. 



Comparative Expenditure of the University of Toronto and other 

Universities. 

Dr. Ryerson, who does not go into details, gives a comparative state- 
ment of the expenses of different Canadian Educational Institutions, t 
I have not attempted to verify all that gentleman's figures. When I 
found the University income stated at $81,000, by mixing up Upper 

* In his reply (p. 40 C. P.,) Dr. Ryerson has a paragraph, the heading of which design- 
ated the Toronto Scholarships as a shame and an insult, and as of a pernicious character ; 
and the shipne and perniciousness from the body of the paragraph, appear to consist in 
their being mostly awarded for excellence in special departments, as 2 for Classics and 2 
far Mathematics throughout, and in the later years 1 for each of the following subjects : 
Modern Languages, Natural Sciences, Ethics, Metaphysics and Civil Polity, and Oriental 
Languages. Now this is exactly what is done in the London University and Queen's 
Colleges, Ireland, where all the scholarships, exhibitions and prizes are appropriated to 
special subjects ; and Dr. Ryerson himself (p. 37 C. P.) quotes with approbation from the 
Cambridge Calendar, that more than half of the prizes are given for the encouragement of 
Classical Literature. If on the older foundations Scholarships are not more generally 
awarded for proficiency in special subjects, though many of them are so, it is that the old 
University course was itself almost restricted to one or two. But since the range of studies 
has been enlarged, a change is taking place in this respect. The Cambridge Commissioners, 
in a draft statute for Trinity, have proposed to devote some of the scholarships to special 
subjects, and at Oxford, Christ Church, Magdalen, |and Balliol, have already done so. It 
is also worthy of notice, that of the scholarships proposed to be founded by the New 
Brunswick Commissioners, of whom Dr. Ryerson was one, all but two are for special 
subjects. 

As for the objection that the examinations, upon which the Scholarships are awarded, 
are on " subjects not included in the ordinary collegiate curriculum," it only shows Dr. 
Ryerson's ignorance, either of the practice of the _ University ef Toronto, or of what is 
essential in such an examination. With the exception ot Oriental Languages, which are 
optional throughout, as they are made in all Universities, no Scholarship is given for any 
subject which is not included in the regular curriculum ; but in each subject to award 
honors and prizes, you must go deeper into the examination, and besides all the ordinary 
work, you must require branches of the subject, and books, which are not demanded from 
candidates who are not aspirants for honours. In the older Universities the Scholarships 
are generally awarded on a special examination, for which the students may offer them- 
selves or not as they please. At London and Toronto they are awarded for proficiency at 
the annual examinations, where all must present themselves, but in either case, it is, and 
necessarily must be, the practice of every University to require from candidates for honors 
and rewards, more extensive knowledge of the subject than from those who merely desire 
to pass, whether this be ascertained by a separate paper or by separate questions in a 
paper submitted to all. 

f It appears from the evidence that Dr. Ryerson is not the original author of these 
errors, having obtained his figures from the Rev. Mr. Poole ; but he assumed the respon- 
sibility of them by making them part of his statement before the Committee, and even 



24 

Canada College with it, and ignoring the expenses of managing our 
endowment ; and a salary of £125 a year to the Bursar of Trinity, com- 
pared with the staff necessary to manage our landed property ; — when I 
saw the incidental expenses of the same institution called $386, whereas 
they were £386, and its total expenses per year set down as $7526, 
whereas the statement published in the Journal of Education for Janu- 
ary gives them as $16,744, and that expressly excluding $1380 for 
Scholarships which are chargeable on the general fund, besides which 
there are others to the amount of $2820, which are specially provided 
for ; — when, proceeding to the next item, I found Victoria was set down 
as $6000, whilst Dr. Green has shown that the salaries alone are $7600 
— I gave up the attempt as useless. I will, however, subjoin a compar- 
ative statement, which I hope will be found more accurate, of the expen- 
diture of the Provincial "University and College in Canada, and the 
analogous establishments in England and Ireland. 

In comparing the University of Toronto with that of London, I have 
excluded in the former the cost of Buildings, and the formation of the 
Library and Museum, there being nothing analogous to this in the latter ; 
nor is there any necessity for them, as the British Museum is free to all, 
and is, in fact, frequented by students to an extent embarrassing to the 
officers in charge : — 

London, from Toronto. Toronto average 

Estimates of 1857. 1859. since 1854. 

Salaries, including servants $5,010 $3,026 $2,967 

Examiners 12,459 1,760 1,957 

Scholarships, Medals, and Prizes ... 5,429 6,417 5; 067 

Incidental 2,307 2,624 2,831 



$25,205 $13,827 $12,812 

Of these amounts, as I have before stated, $6324 is estimated to be 
paid by fees, but even deducting them the portion of the expense paid by 
the State very much exceeds ours. 

I find by a Parliamentary Return of 1859, that, exclusive of the 
Buildings, which were otherwise provided for, the Queen's University 
and Colleges in Ireland cost the country for the last year £26,930, or 
$131,000, which is only a trifle more than the average since 1851. This 
is about three times the cost of the University and University College, 
in Canada, for the same period, and with the same exclusions, but they 
had not quite double the number of students, viz : — 385 to 196. 

now he reiterates them. In his speech before the Conference at Kingston (p. 15 C. P.) 
he makes an attack upon Dr. Wilson on this ground, and states that the clerical 
error of putting dollars for pounds in one item, is the only error in the whole table. This 
is a cool way of escaping from as monstrous a specimen of Mr. Poole's statistics as even 
his enumeration of the salaried officers of the University. Grive Mr. Poole the benefit of 
his clerical error, which only makes a difference of $1158 ; is there no error in calling the 
expenses of Victoria $1600 less than Dr. Green says the salaries alone amount to ? Is 
there no error in setting down Trinity as $7526, when the very document from which he 
got his information distinctly states Its expenditure to have been $18124, besides some 
Scholarships specially provided for ? Is there any thing like truth or fairness, when Mr. 
Poole, in striving to exculpate himself (Qs. 503-4,) says that it was his object to state the 
amount of salaries only, with two selected items in Trinity College, whilst he compared 
this with all the expenses of the University of Toronto and University College, including 
items purposely omitted from the other colleges, and saddling it moreover with the Bur- 
sar's office, and an entirely different corporation, Upper Canada College ? 



25 

The different items of the expenditure are not so easily accessible, and 
cannot be compared separately, as the Scholarships there are included in 
the Colleges, and the libraries are provided for, not by a definite appro 
priation, but out of an amiual grant. Suffice it to say that each College 
receives £8,600 sterling a-year, or $41,850, and the University about 
$11,000. The larger items of expenditure, for Examiners and Scholar- 
ships, have already been compared, and the only other large item, the 
cost of the Professorial Staff in each College, is nearly the same as our 
own. At Cork, in 1859, it is given as $24,820, besides tuition fees ; 
with us for the same year it was $24,480, with no fees except from occa- 
sional students. Other fees have been almost abolished, as with us, the 
Government having increased the former giant by .£1,600 sterling, in 
lieu of them.* This sum for salaries, however, includes the Professors of 
Law and Medicine, amounting together to .£700 sterling, or $3,406, so 
that the amount paid to the Professors in Arts is about $3,000 less than 
with us, but the amount estimated for fees from matriculated students, 
upwards of $2,000, brings them nearly to the same. It is also to be 
remarked that the salaries paid are very low as compared with other 
similar institutions elsewhere, and that this evil has notoriously resulted 
from it, that their most efficient Professors are constantly drafted into 
other better endowed Institutions. 



(4.) Standard of Education in the University of Toronto. 

I now come to the fourth charge against the University, insisted upon 
principally by Dr. Byerson, viz. : that the standard of education has been 
lowered. This charge divides itself into three several heads, (1) that the 
examination for Matriculation has been reduced ; (2) that an unprece- 
dented number of options has been introduced ; and (3) that the stand- 
ard for a Degree has been lowered. 

Matriculation. 

A definite course of study having been laid down in a College, the 
object of a Matriculation examination is to ascertain that a student pre- 
senting himself is far enough advanced to enter upon that course ; if not, 
either the other students would be impeded in their progress, or he would 
be neglected. The Matriculation examination must, therefoie, be adapt- 
ed to the course of study in the College, but the course in the College 
itself must be made to harmonise with the education which can be 
obtained out of its doors. If the College commences at too high a stand- 
ard for the schools, the great bulk of the youth must be debarred from 
entering it at all ; or another evil will follow, that not only the examina- 
tion for Matriculants, but, as a necessary consequence, the earlier years 
of the College course itself, will become a mere paper scheme which is 
not acted upon in practice. The real standard for entering the Univer- 
sity, whatever it may be in theory, must be based on the standard of the 
schools of a country. If that should be low, you must not be content to 

* It is made a charge against the University, that tuition fees have been abolished (Q. 
268.) It is singular that, in the model University proposed to Mr. Hincks, the lectures 
of the Professors were to be free. 



26 

sink the Colleges to their level ; but you must not place them so far out; 
of reach as to make the entrance into them hopeless. It is a somewhat 
delicate process to make the adjustment, and in a growing country like 
this, it will require not unfrequent revision. The Colleges should, 
certainly not commence above the standard of the best schools, but 
they should be greatly in advance of that of the inferior ones : and as 
the schools improve, the standard of entrance to the Colleges may 
be raised, first by increasing the difficulty of the honor subjects, and] 
then by adding to the qualifications required from all students, and before 
long we may, perhaps, return to a three years' course. Some excellent i| 
Grammar Schools we no doubt have, and I have no doubt but that they 
will continue to improve ; but it is notorious that if a much higher Matri- j 
dilation examination were prescribed and acted on, the young men from i 
many parts of the country would be altogether excluded from the Univer- 
sity, unless their parents were able to afford to send them for preparatory 
training to Upper Canada College, or some other superior Grammar i 
School. In confirmation of these views, I would appeal to the valuable || 
evidence of Dr. Cook,* as to the impossibility of establishing a Matricu-:! 
lation examination which is not in harmony with the capabilities of the 
schools, and in his earlier statement he shows the necessity of having 
tutors in the Colleges, as well as Professors, for the express purpose of j 
bringing forward those who are deficient in particular branches. Dr. 
Ryerson asks* why this complaint of the inefficiency of the Grammar 
Schools was not made before '? The answer is that it was made, and no 
complaint with regard to the old University was more frequent, than that I 
its high standard of entrance practically confined its benefits to a favoured 
class. With the object of remedying this evil, the new University added 
a year to the course of study, so as to complete in the University what 
had been left unfinished in the schools. But says Dr. Ryerson, "they 
did not, at the same time, lower the entrance examination, except by 
leaving out one book." It is true they did not, but there were not want- 
ing a large number of the Senate, t Dr. Ryerson amongst the rest, who 
contended that this was a mistake, and that the object of adding a year 
to the course was not fully accomplished without a further reduction, and 
when a fitting opportunity occurred, the change was made to harmonise 
with the new arrangement. Dr. Ryerson says that the Grammar School 
Act forbids the employment of any person not a graduate, or who has 
not been examined in all the subjects of our Matriculation, both for pass 
and for honors ; but does he mean to say that they in fact do pass 
such an examination, and are competent to teach the subject ?| I hope 

* Rev. Mr. Whitaker also says, (Qu. 358,) "Mr. Laugton justly observed yesterday, that 
our Grammar Schools are not like those at home ; and I quite agree with him in his para- 
dox, that the students must fix the standard of examination themselves." 

t Dr. Ryerson states that he never was in favour of reducing the Matriculation Examina- 
tion. Let him have the benefit of the denial, though there are many persons who have a 
different recollection. It is not true, however, as stated by Mr. Poole, (p. 10 C. P.,) that 
herecorded his vote against the reduction, March 4, 1S57. That vote, as explained in the 
evidence, (Qu. 454,) was upon another Statute, for abolishing Matriculation in the Univer- 
sity, and transferring it, as in Queen's University, Ireland, to the Colleges. That Statute 
was afterwards dropped, and the existing Statute was oidy introdnced March 26, and 
carried without a division. 

$ Dr. Ryerson, in his reply, produces the names of about a dozen Grammar School- 
masters who are fully competent for their important functions, which is readily admitted 
by every one ; but the inferior condition of the seventy-five schools as a whole, from 
the inadequacy of the remuneration, is as universally acknowledged. The followins 



27 

the Committee will call for the Grammar School Inspectors, who can tell 
them what chance the mass of the Grammar School pupils, and even a 
great many of the Grammar School Masters, would have of passing the 
common Matriculation examination only, even as at present established. 
As for myself, I have now had experience of four Matriculation examina- 
tions, and can answer for the test being strictly applied, except, perhaps, 
in Latin composition,'"' which has hitherto been much neglected in our 
Grammar Schools ; and from the difficulty that many of the students, 
even from schools of some repute, experience in coming up to the mark, 
I am not surprised at the complaints which were formerly made, that 
King's College was practically closed to the bulk of the people. 

It is stated in the Memorial of the Methodist Conference, that the 
standard of Matriculation is below that of other Universities. I will 
proceed to show, confining myself for the present to Greek and Latin, the 
department complained of, that though it is below that in the old Uni- 
versity, — because, as I have explained, that was too high, — it is not 
below those which we may well take, and by the law are directly 
instructed to take, as our models. At Oxford and Cambridge, there is, 
properly speaking, no Matriculation examination in the University, 
though there is in some of the Colleges. Generally speaking, nothing is 
required but the certificate of a Graduate, probably his schoolmaster, 
that a student is competent. I am not aware of the precise requirements 
of any of the Colleges at Cambridge, (at my own there was no examina- 
tion, )t but the Oxford Commissioners state what is required by the best 
Colleges at Oxford, viz. : ' f some facility in Latin writing, and a fair 
acquaintance with the grammatical principles of Greek and Latin. To 
this is now generally added Arithmetic, and a portion of the Elements of 
Euclid," p. 276. They, however, recommend that a Matriculation 
examination should be established, somewhat similar to that now called 
Hesponsions, which is passed between the 3rd and the 7th terms, and the 
subjects at that examination are one Greek author and one Latin author, 
to be selected by the student from a list given, and translation into Latin 
prose. The authors we require occur in this list, but they must take 
more of them, as both the Jugurtha and Catiline of Sallust, and four 

are Dr. Ryerson's own observations upon the subject, in his letter to the Chancel- 
lor, dated March 23rd, 1857, and published in the Evidence before the Committee, 
p. 53 : — "One of the most pressing wants of the grammar schools is that of duly qualified 
masters. Several of the schools are now closed on that account, the boards of trustees 
being unable to procure masters qualified according to law. In some of them the masters 
now employed would not be eligible, had they not been engaged before the passing of the 
present Grammar School Act." 

* Latin composition is, perhaps, the best test of scholarship, not only as a proof of an 
accurate knowledge of the grammar of the language, but as requiring the student to pos- 
sess a vocabulary which can only be obtained by a tolerably extensive course of reading. 
In the present state of our schools, however, it would be hopeless to expect much profi- 
ciency in this exercise from students entering the University. Even at Oxford, at the 
final examination for Degree, Professor Walker says, " If decent Latin writing should be 
insisted upon, the number of failures would be more than quadrupled." (Rep. App. K. 
p. 72.) And Dr. Peacock makes a similar remark with regard to Cambridge. 

f Latterly there has been a Matriculation examination at Trinity, Cambridge, slightly 
more difficult in classics than at Toronto, viz., Cicero de Am. and de Sen. ; Virgil Mn. B. 
I. ; Horn. II. B. I; Xen. Mem. B. I. ; but it is to be observed that Dr. Whewell, the 
master of Trinity, objects to a Matriculation examination in the University, and states the 
object of the examination in the College to be principally useful in turning the attention of 
the tutors to deficiencies in the students who may nevertheless be allowed to pass. 



28 

books of the Anabasis." We, however, require two Latin authors, and 
it must be remembered that the Commissioners do not contemplate a 
strict examination ; for, in answer to the objection that the standard 
must be made so low as to exclude almost none, they recommend that 
good answering in one subject may excuse insufficiency in another. 

At Cambridge, the examination corresponding to the Responsions at 
Oxford, and the only substitute for a Matriculation examination, consists 
of one of the Gospels in Greek, Paley's Evidences, and one Greek and 
one Latin author, which were, in the year when I passed the examina- 
tion, one book of Homer, and one book of Virgil ; and for the present 
year, the 6th book of Virgil, and the last of the Anabasis. 

In the University of London, which was proposed as our model, Jhey 
require, together with translation into Latin, one Greek, and one Latin 
book, selected annually from a list given, in which list appear all the 
three books we require, and the same quantity of each. Our examination 
is, therefore, if the number of books be taken as a test, higher than 
theirs. 

In the Queen's University, Ireland, the Matriculation is conducted in 
the Colleges. I have not been able to find the subjects at Gal way, if 
there be such an examination there ; at Belfast, it is two Greek and two 
Latin books ; at Cork, it is the first book of the Anabasis, and first book 
of Virgil — two of the three books we require. 

Dr. Ryerson, whilst quoting the recommendation of the Commissioners, 
that the Matriculation examination should not be reduced below what it 
is, laid upon the table the course at Belfast, which is rather higher than 
ours. Why did he not also submit that of Cork, which is rather lower I 
Both, no doubt, were right, being guided by the qualifications of the 
schools they had to deal with, and both were equally alluded to in the 
recommendation of the Commissioners. 

I think that I have thus satisfactorily shewn that we, even with the 
imperfectly organised schools of a new country, require from our students 
at entrance, as much as has been thought advisable even in England, with 
all the facilities for acquiring classical knowledge, which its numerous and 
long established schools afford. + 

In Canada, at Trinity College, which is certainly not inferior in its 
appreciation of classical learning to Victoria or Queen's, the Matriculation 
examination is substantially the same as our own, but rather lower, only 
requiring two books to our three. As to the Colleges in the United 
States, I am unacquainted with the measure of strictness with which 

* The Rev. Mr. Ambery is quoted by Dr. Ryerson, in bis reply, as stating that this 
examination, to which it is proposed by the Commissioners to assimilate the Matriculation 
examination, is about equal to that for an ordinary degree at Toronto. At Oxford, a list 
of books is given from which the candidate himself selects those he will be examined in. 
If from the list given for Responsions a candidate deliberately selects the most difficult. 
Mr. Ambery's comparison may be true ; but if he selects the easier ones, which he has a 
perfect right to do, there can be no question as to the greater difficulty of the books required 
at Toronto, — not to mention that it is a single examination at Oxford, and the last of four 
consecutive ones at Toronto. Compare, for instance, four books of the Anabasis, at 
Oxford, with a play of Euripides and a book of Thucydides, at Toronto ; or Sallust's 
Catiline and Jugurtha, with Tacitus' Germania and Agricola, and four Satires of Juvenal. 

f Upon this subject the following evidence was given by Mr. Meredith, Assistant Pro- 
vincial Secretary, and a Medalist and Scholar of Trinity, Dublin : 

Qu. 524. — Have you compared the Matriculation examinations of the University of 
Toronto with those prescribed in other Universities, and what is your opinion of their 
comparative standards ?— I have compared it with the Matriculation examinations at Cam- 



29 



their examination is applied ; but this I will say without any fear of 
contradiction, that if, as the italics of the pamphlet of the Methodist 
Conference imply, they expect a lad upon leaving school to have read the 
whole of Virgil, and the whole of Caesar, his time would have been much 
better employed in learning something of other authors. To any one 
acquainted with the subject it bears upon the face of it the stamp of a 
paper programme, as much as does the whole of Livy and the whole of 
Herodotus, as a part of the first year's course at Victoria College. * 

bridge, London, Cork, Belfast, and Dublin. It seems to me to be about equal to Cam- 
bridge, rather greater than London, greater than Cork, less than Belfast, and less than 
Dtiblin. 

Qu. 537. — State the subjects of Matriculation examination in each of the Universities 
and Colleges referred to in your Answer to Question No. 524 % — The following are the 
subjects for the ordinai-y or pass Matriculation Examination, in the Universities mentioned, 
namely : 



Name of 
University 
or College. 


Subject of Matriculation Examination. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


Latin 
Composition. 


Other Subjects. 


1. University of 
Toronto. 

2. University of 
Cambridge. 

3. University of 
London, 

4. Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. 

5. Queen's Col- 
lege, Cork. 

6. Queen's Col- 
lege, Belfast. 


Xenophon, Anaba- 
sis Book I. 

Xenophon, Anaba- 
sis last Book, Gos- 
pel of St. Mathew. 

Xenophon, one 
Book. 

aHomerlliad, Books 
I., II., III. ; New 
Testament, four 
Gospels, and Acts 
of the Apostles. 

Xenophon, Anaba- 
sis Book I. 

aHomer, Iliad two 
Books, Xenophon, 
Anabasis 2 Books. 


Sallust, Catili- 
na, Virgil, 
iEneid Book 
I. 

Virgil, .ffineid 
Book VI. 

Horace, two 
Books of the 
Odes. 

Virgil, iEneid 
Books I., II., 
III.,IV.,Ho. 

race, Odes. 

Virgil, iEneid 
Book I. 

Virgil, iEneid 
Books I., II., 
III., IV., Li- 
vy, Books I., 
II. 


Translation 
from English 
into Latin 
Prose. 

No Composi- 
tion. 

No Composi- 
tion. 

Latin Composi- 
tion. 

Re-translation 
into Latin of 
parts of Cae- 
sar. 

Do. do. do. 


Elements of Mathe- 
matics, History, 
and Geography. 

Elements of Mathe- 
matics, Paley's 
Evidences, and 
History. 

Elements of Mathe- 
matics and Natu- 
ral Philosophy ; 
History and Geo- 
graphy, French or 
German. 

English Composi- 
tion and Arithme- 
tic. 

Elements of Mathe- 
matics. 

Elements of Mathe- 
matics, History, 
and Geography. 



a These Books are taken from a list of authors, out of which the Candidate is allowed to make his 
selection, or from which a selection is made by the College authorities during the preceding year. 

* The Commissioners who reported upon the constitution and studies of King's College, 
New Brunswick, at the end of 1854, which report was stated by Dr. Ryerson to be drawn 



30 

Options permitted in the University. 

Upon the subject of the options permitted in the University of To- 
ronto, Dr. Ryerson is very decided. His argument is this, in the main 
features of which he is supported by Dr. Cook — " that a University course 
is not intended to be adapted to the tastes and capacities of the various 
students, but " to discipline the powers of the mind by a common course 
of application and exercises, sanctioned by the experience of ages, and 
for which Utopian experimenters have found no substitute, any more 
than they have found a substitute for ordinal y food and exercise requi- 
site for physical development and discipline " — the two subjects for which 
no substitute can be found being Greek and Latin and Mathematics. * 
Now, I am far from undervaluing these two studies, which, when I was 

up by himself, recommend that the standard for Matriculation shall be similar to that 
established in the University of Toronto. It is remarkable, however, that when they 
came to give the detail in schedule A. of the draft bill, they omit from the Toronto subjects 
as they then stood, one Greek book, the Elements of Natural Philosophy, the Elements of 
Chemistry and French, which is exactly the difference between the present Matriculation at 
Toronto and that established in 1854. 

* Mr. Langton in the text has gone into considerable detail upon this subject, and has 
quoted largely from the Oxford, Cambridge, and Irish Commissioners, in order to shew 
the latitude of individual choice, which they recommend iD the subjects of academical 
study. He might also have referred to the opinions of certain other commissioners, not 
perhaps of such authority upon University education generally ; but whose recommenda- 
tions cannot be without considerable weight in Canada at least, as two of them, Dr. 
Dawson and Dr. Ryerson, occupy prominent positions as educationists here. This report 
upon collegiate education in New Brunswick, which Dr. Ryerson in his evidence (p. 146) 
states that he himself prepared, recommends that the following subjects should be embra- 
ced in the general course, which are identical with the subjects which form the course of 
study at Toronto : English Language and Literature, Greek and Latin, Modern Languages, 
History, Natural History, Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology, Mathematics, Natural 
Philosophy, Mental and Moral Philosophy, and Civil Polity. The first year consists of 
Greek and Latin, Mathematics and Modern Languages, including English. The second year 
of Chemistry, Natural History, and Mineralogy and Geology, together with any one of the 
three subjects of the first year. In the third and last year, (all the previous subjects being 
finally disposed of,) the course contains only Natural Philosophy, English Literature and 
History, Mental and Moral Philosophy and Civil Polity. Thus Dr. Ryerson, who when 
criticising the course of study in the University of Toronto, incorrectly represents it as low- 
ering its standard by permitting options to commence at the end of the first year, him- 
self recommends that in New Brunswick they should then commence. Dr. Ryerson,_ who 
denounces by quotations from Dr. Whewell, and otherwise, the severance of the studies of 
Classics and Mathematics, or the substitution of Modern Languages for the former at any 
period of the course, himself introduces both options in New Brunswick at the end of the 
first year. Dr. Ryerson, who in his evidence at Quebec, (p. 29.) says : "It is only there- 
fore when the foundation, common to all, is broadly and deeply laid, and at an advanced 
stage of the collegiate course, that options are admitted in the essential subjects of a 
University education ; but in no case are both Classics and Mathematics allowed to be 
abandoned during any part of the course, and least of all at the end of the first year"— 
this same Dr. Ryerson recommends that they may both be omitted, and that precisely at 
tJieend of the first year. It is not true, as stated by Dr. Ryerson in his evidence, p. 29, 
" that a student (at Toronto) may take a degree in honors, without performing a single 
exercise in either Classics or Mathematics after his first year ; " but it is true, that 
according to his own scheme for New Brunswick, a student may do exactly what he 
above denounces. 

Dr. Ryerson's opinions upon other points have undergone a change since he framed this 
report ; for when the College Council in their memorial adduced the authority of Dr. 
Wayland of Brown University, for the system of options, he argues in his evidence, (pages 
29 & 30,) that Dr. Wayland's authority is of no account, and his plan a failure. But Dr. 
Ryerson, the Commissioner for New Brunswick, says that : "As the Rev. Dr. Wayland, 
of Brown University, at Providence, R. I., stands confessedly amongst the ripest scholars 
and most distinguished educationists of the age, and as he has written and done more on 
the subject of Collegiate and University reform than any other man in America, and as he 
has been specially referred to by Sir Edmund Head in his correspondence on the subject of 
King's College, the Commissioners were anxious to obtain the advantage of Dr. Wayland's 
judgment and suggestions in regard to their contemplated recommendations." They 



31 

at College, were the only recognised subjects of an Academical course — 
the former more particularly, as a means of mental discipline, and the 
latter far more for its practical utility. But there have not been want- 
ing men of the highest position in the intellectual world, who have 
argued that they were, not merely, not the only, but not even the best 
studies, for forming the mind ; whilst the practical utility of many new 
subjects has been gradually forcing them into the established studies of 
the Universities. There has been also a growing conviction, that from 
the narrow limits of the studies of our Public Schools and Universities, 
they were not fitting men for the actual business of life. The whole 
tendency of educational reform, for the last thirty years, has been in this 
direction, and if the transactions of this Committee ever find their way 
into the hands of persons interested in such subjects at home, it will 
raise considerable surprise in their minds, that the exploded systems of 
Europe are finding refuge in the new world, and that a new dynasty of 
Latin and Greek is sought to be raised up in the Universities of Canada. 

Old prejudices are not easily overcome, especially in Universities, 
which are the most conservative of bodies, and the change has been gra- 
dual, but it has been steady ; and as new subjects have been introduced, 
options, as a necessity, have followed in their footsteps. Where Classics 
and Mathematics, as at Cambridge, or Classics and Mental Sciences as at 
Oxford, formed the staple of the University course, no great amount of 
individual choice could be left to the students ; but as the various branches 
of Natural Philosophy increased in intricacy and importance ; as Chem- 
istry, Geology and Political Economy assumed the proportion of Sciences, 
and with Natural History and Modern Languages, claimed a position as 
recognised subjects of study, it became evident that no student could 
give equal attention to all, and that some latitude of selection must be 
allowed. At first, as was natural, the old subjects retained their position, 
and the new ones alone were made optional. But this, also, is passing 
away, and the exclusive supremacy of Latin and Greek, though their 
intrinsic value can never be forgotten, is almost at an end. 

I will not pursue the argument as to whether this has been wise or 
not ; I believe the Committee would prefer to learn from me what is the 
actual practice of the English Universities, and what are the recommen- 
dations of the Royal Commissioners for their further reform. The Uni- 
versity of London naturally presents itself first to our notice, not only as 
the model proposed to us, but also as being untramelled in its action by 
time-honored statutes and prejudices ; I must, however, notice a differ- 
ence which exists in their method of conferring Degrees, which affects 
the question of the course of study. We prescribe a four years' course ; 
that is, the examination for the Degree of B.A., in the ordinary way of 
proceeding to it, is the fourth examination after that for Matriculation, 
and the degree of M.A., as in the older English Universities, follows as 
a matter of course without examination. In London they have a two 
years' course, or the degree of B. A. is given on the second examination 
after Matriculation, and that of M.A. follows the next year on a third 

therefore visited Providence expressly to consult him, and having received his approbation, 
Dr. Ryerson says : " The Commissioners could not but be gratified by such an expression 
of opinion by a man, whose writings on Collegiate reform have so pre-eminently distin- 
guished him ; and who holds so high a position amongst the first scholars and educators in 
America." — (Rept. II., 13.) 



32 

examination. In comparing the two courses, we must therefore remem- 
ber that, with them, the examination for M.A. is the third or final one ; 
with us the fourth, or final one, is that for B.A. 

Now, in the University of London,* the first examination after Ma- 
triculation is extremely similar to ours, excepting that there is no Greek 
at all, and, as with us, no options are allowed. The second examination 
is rather above us, especially in Mathematics, and no options are allowed, 
neither are they with us, except to the few who have been first-class 
honor men, in either Classics or Mathematics, or in both Natural Sciences 
and Modern Languages. To our third examination they have nothing 
corresponding, and at their final examination they allow any one of these 
three branches to be taken, viz. : Classics, Mathematics, or Mental and 
Moral Sciences \ a greater license than we allow to any but first-class 
honor men. But this is not all, for to meet the growing necessity of 
options, they have established a new degree, unknown before in English 
Universities, though existing in the University of Paris, viz : that of 
Bachelor and Doctor of Science. A student offering himself for this 
course, may, after Matriculation, i. <?., one year, before we permit any 
options at all, and two years before we permit them to mere pass men, 
drop Classics and Modern Languages altogether. At the second exami- 
nation, he may drop pure Mathematics altogether, and at the final exami- 
nation, that for Doctor of Science, he need only take one of no less than 
16 options. The extent to which the different branches of Science are 
subdivided in this scheme, may be conceived from the fact, that Organic 
and Inorganic Chemistiy are distinct branches, and so are Geology and 
Palaeontology. Nay, the several branches are again subdivided into prin- 
cipal and subsidiary subjects, and he is to have a thorough knowledge 
of the one, but need only show a general acquaintance with the other. 
Thus, a candidate selecting Mathematics as his branch, may take pure 
Mathematics as the principal subject, with only a general knowledge of 
applied Mathematics, or vice versa. The Committee, therefore, can judge 

* In his reply (p. 36 C. P.,) Dr. Ryerson heads a paragraph, " Mr. Langton's misquo- 
tations in regard to London Univorsity," but gives exactly the same account of the two 
examinations for the degree of B.A., excepting for his amusing mistake in supposing that 
the two years' course means two separate degrees of B.A. At the two first annual exami- 
nations after Matriculation, no options are allowed ; they commence at the third year, 
which is the final examination in the Faculty of Arts. So also do they practically com- 
mence at the third year in the University of Toronto. Much misrepresentation has taken 
place in that respect. The rule for the second year is this : 

" A candidate for honors in any department, who has obtained first-class honors in the 
University, in his first year, either in Classics or Mathematics, or in both Modern Lan- 
guages and Natural Sciences, is not required in other departments to pass an examination 
in any branch, in which he has already been examined in his first year ; but having only 
been examined in pure Mathematics in his first year, he must also take applied Mathema- 
tics this year." 

Now the effect of this rule is, that a student who has taken first-class honors in either 
Classics or Mathematics, need not take a second course of Modern Languages, or of Chem- 
istry, or of Natural History, and several have availed themselves of the option. But with 
the essential subjects of Classics and Mathematics, the case is very different. Mathema- 
tics cannot be omitted in the second year by any one, and Classics only in two cases : 1st, 
by a student who has taken first-class honors in both Modern Languages and Natural 
Sciences, a contingency which has never occurred yet ; and, 2nd, by a student who has 
taken first-class honors in Mathematics. During the last five years, eleven students have 
had this privilege, and only four have availed themselves of it, which is the sum total of 
the much talked of option of dropping Classics and Mathematics, which is always spoken 
of by Dr. Rverson as universal, and is described in his evidence (p. 118) as permitted 
" almost without limit." The real options commence, as in London, at the end of the 
second year, and then only for first-class honor men, to the extent which they permit. 



3§ 

for themselves, liow far Dr. Ryerson is borne out in his assertions, that 
" it is not the object of Collegiate education to minister to individual 
tastes," that " in English Universities, Natural Sciences are not admitted 
as a substitute for Mathematics," that "in no case are both Classics and 
Mathematics allowed to be abandoned during any part of the course," and 
that " there is not a University or College in Great Britain, that would 
not scout the idea of conferring a degree on such terms." 

At the Queen's University, Ireland, the system of options is also per- 
mitted, though differing in arrangement from ours. At the first examina- 
tion after Matriculation, as with us, there are no options. At the second 
(one year before we permit any, except to first class honor men) there 
is an option between Classics and Mathematics. At the end of the third 
year, (and herein they differ principally from us,) they take over .again 
some branches of all departments, and it is to be observed that this is 
exactly the examination which the Commissioners propose to alter. At 
the fourth or final examination, which with them also is that for M. A., 
four options are allowed. Classics with one Modern Language, Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philossphy, English with Logic and Metaphysics, or 
with Jurisprudence and Political Economy, and the Natural Sciences — 
any one of the four being sufficient for obtaining the degree. In his 
supplementary evidence, Dr. Ryerson has appealed to the report of the 
Commissioners of the Queen's University and Colleges, and considering 
the length to which his extracts from other writers extended, it is singular 
he should only have quoted from the Commissioners, their statement of 
the existing examination for B. A., and not the proposals which have 
been made to amend it. I will content myself with referring to the 1 9th 
page, the perusal of which will satisfy any member of the Committee, 
that they are not opposed to the system of options, and never dreamt of 
the exclusive studies recommended by Dr. Ryerson and Dr. Cook. They 
shew that the object of the present course contemplates " a wide and 
extensive general education," and that devotion to special subjects is 
encouraged by the M. A. Examination, and by the prizes and honors. 
They say that all the Professors are in favour of a general course, but 
think the present work too much, and what they mean by a general 
course is shewn by their different schemes as given in the Appendix, all 
of which, except one, greatly extend the system of options. They object 
to all these schemes as making too radical a change, and then give the 
remedy which meets most with their approbation, which is a step beyond 
what we go in the University of Toronto, viz. : that there shall be an 
examination at the end of the second year, on the subjects of the course 
up to that time, which shallbe final, as far as these subjects are concerned, 
and that at the B. A. Examination, they need take only one of the three 
groups of the present B. A. Examination, given in Dr. Ryerson's evidence, 
excluding Latin and Greek, Mathematics and Modern Languages, which 
have been finally disposed of at the end of the second year.* 

At Cambridge, the options until quite lately were permitted to honor 
men alone, that is, all must pass the Previous Examination, the only 

* Here again, Dr. Ryerson heads the paragraph of his reply (p. 37 and 38 0. P.) "Mr. 
Langton's Misquotations " and then proceeds to give the passage just as Mr. Langton gave 
the substance of it, and caused the Clerk of the Committee to read it at length at the 
table ; shewing, as stated above, that Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and Modern Languages, 
are to be finally disposed of at the end o the second year, and that at the B.A. Examma- 
E 



u 



substitute for, and certainly not more difficult than our examinations 
required from all students. * The candidates for Mathematical Honors, 
might then branch off, being only required to take the Theological sub- 
jects of the genera] Degree Examination. The candidates for Classical 
Honors used to be more limited, as they could not present themselves 
unless they had obtained a certain standing in the Mathematical T?'ipos. 
This arrangement, however, was modified some years ago, and the candi- 
dates for Classical Honors were only required to have taken a fair stand- 
ing at the general examination. Two new Triposes were also established 
on the same terms : viz., Moral Sciences, and Natural Sciences, a further 
proof of Dr. Ryerson's accuracy in stating that no British University 
admits of an option between Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Whether 
the fifth Tripos for Modem Languages has been actually established or 
not, I am not quite certain. If it has not it most certainly will be. 
Upon this subject, the Commissioners make the following observations : 
" Another addition still more obviously suggested by considerations of 
utility is the study of Modern Languages. A system of liberal education 
cannot be regarded otherwise than as defective, if it does not afford 
facilities and inducements for acquiring a knowledge of the treasures of 
German, French, and Italian literature." "We confidently indulge the 

tion, only one of these three groups need be taken : — A. English, Philosophy, and Criti- 
cism, Logic, Metaphysics or Jurisprudence, and Political Economy. B. Chemistry and 
Natural Philosophy. C. Zoology, Botany, and Physical Geography. 

Such was the recommendation of the Royal Commissioners, at p. 19 of their Report. 
From the reports of the colleges for the year 1860, it appears that a change hgs actually 
been introduced, differing a good deal from that recommended by the Commissioners, and 
assimilating their practice very closely to that of the University of Toronto. It is as fol- 
lows : — at the end of the second year, there is an examination in the University embracing 
Classics, Mathematics, and one Modern Continental Language. Then the optums com- 
mence, and a candidate for Honors may take any one of group A., or any two of group B., 



Group A. 
Greek and Latin, 
Modern Languages, 
Mathematical Science, 
Experimental Science, 
Natural Science. 

Candidates who seeK a Degree without Honors, may take any combination of the sub- 
jects in group C, provided the sum total of the values attached to each subject is at least, 
four : 

Group C. 



Group B. 
English Language and Literature, 
Logic and Metaphysics, 
Logic and History, 
Logic and Political Economy. 



English Language & Literature 


2 


Latin .... 


. 1 


Mathematical Science 


2 


Modern Languages, each 


. 1 


Experimental Science . . . 


2 


Logic .... 


. J 


Chemistry .... 


2 


Metaphysics . 


. 1 


Zoology 


1 


History .... 


. 1 


Botany 


1 


Political Economy 


. 1 


Greek 


1 







* Dr. Ryerson, in his reply, (p. 33 C. P.,) takes exception to this comparison, because, 
before branching off into options, the Cambridge student must pass the previous examina- 
tion in the middle of his second year, whereas those of Toronto may do so at the end of the 
first, "and that," says he, "without any such previous examination as the one required at 
Cambridge." Omitting the misrepresentation that our options commence at the end of the 
first year, the evidence of Mr. Meredith (Qu. 227) shows that even at the end of the first 
year, our students have been as severely tested as those at Cambridge. But Dr. Ryerson 
adduces Mr. Whitaker's evidence, to show that the previous examination at Cambridge is 
now made nearly if not quite equal to the B.A. Examination. Mr. Whitaker, however, 
acknowledges, (Qu. 331, &c.) that he knows of no addition to the classical subjects, and 
the Cambridge calendar for 1860 she.vs that there are none, and he further adds, that the 
B.A. Examination is higher not so much in the difficulty of the books, as in the greater 
strictness of the examinations. 



35 

hope that it will, ere long, be recognised by the University as worthy of 
being fostered by honors and lewards." I am aware that the objection 
may be made that these options were only for the honor men, and that they, 
except the Mathematicians, must also pass the Degree Examination. But 
what is the Degree Examination itself 1 ? It is little more than a repeti- 
tion of the previous examination. One Greek and one Latin book, part 
of the Acts or an Epistle, instead of a Gospel, in the Greek Testament, 
Algebra, the rest of Euclid, and the Elementary Principles of Mechanics 
and Hydrostatics, with Paley, and some Church History, certainly not 
more than we expect from all our students at some part of their course. 
I am sure the Committee will excuse me if I quote from the report of 
the Commissioners, the recommendations of which were in a great mea- 
sure adopted last year. After speaking of the Previous Examination, 
they add, " after the completion of five more terms, those candidates for 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, who do not offer themselves for mathe- 
matical honors, are again subjected to an examination, differing but 
little in its general character from that which they passed in the middle 
of their term. Mathematics, and Greek and Latin still form a consider- 
able part of it. But these are subjects in which time had long shown 
that most of this class of students did not possess the desire or the apti- 
tude to excel. If their taste and talents had inclined that way, the 
majority of them would no doubt have been found in the career of 
competition for mathematical and classical honors. For five weary 
terms they have been compelled to continue a course of reading, which, 
whatever attractions, whatever benefits it may have for others, is to them 
irksome, and, need we hesitate to say, little better than unprofitable." 
" What we suggest, then, is that the examination of students in Arts, 
at the end of the fifth term, should take place as at present, and in 
the same subjects, with the addition of such further parts of Euclid and 
Algebra as are now introduced at the final examination for those 
who are not candidates for mathematical honors. After the general 
body of students have passed this examination collectively, they might 
then, in our opinion, be allowed, for the following four terms, to select 
freely for themselves, with the sanction of their college tutor, such lines 
of recognised academical study as were best suited to their aptitudes and 
tastes and professional destinations. Some would aspire to honors in the 
several Triposes, others would prepare themselves for the first degree in 
Law or Physic. The rest, who sought or obtained no honors, would be 
finally subjected to some process of examination, in order to make it 
evident that they had attended such a range of lectures in their last four 
terms, and acquired such a proficiency as to qualify them for a first 
degree in Arts." They then go on to show how candidates for honors in 
the four existing Triposes, and others which might be added, as Modern 
Languages and Civil Engineering, would obtain their degree, and they 
proceed — " Corresponding to the examination for honors in each several 
Tripos, there would be a collateral examination at the same time and in 
the same subjects for those students who had adopted that particular line 
of study, though not seeking the distinction of an academical honor in it. 
As many as passed this collateral examination satisfactorily should also 
thereupon be entitled, in point of academical proficiency, to the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts," which they would accord on the same terms as those 
whose final examination was in Theology. " The change itself of the 



36 

system, which we have proposed, would, in our opinion, be attended with 
great advantages. There would still be, as now, an ardent competition 
and high standard of attainment preserved both in the Mathematical and 
Classical Triposes. Eminent distinction gained in them would still con- 
tinue to be the prelude to a Fellowship in a college. At the same time 
the Moral and Natural Science Triposes would rise into increased im- 
portance, in proportion as the colleges began to recognise superior merit 
in those departments as forming also a recommendation to a Fellowship. 
But the positive advantage would probably be more marked in the case 
of that numerous class of students who are contented with an ordinary 
degree, not feeling themselves fitted to embark in the competition for 
academical honors. After passing the previous examination they might 
turn their four remaining terms to a really profitable account, by pre- 
paring themselves for their future professions ; or at least they might 
continue to find in academical pursuits that degree of interest and im- 
provement which arises from variety and choice of study." (p. 27.) This 
is the scheme of academical study recommended by men of such Euro- 
pean reputation as the Bishop of Chester, Peacock, Herschel, Romilly 
and Sedgwick, and it goes even further in admitting the principle of 
options than the Senate of the University have ventured to follow. The 
Committee can have an opportunity of comparing it with what Dr. Ky- 
erson in his evidence has stated to be the nature of their recommenda- 
tions.* 

At Oxford they have not as yet proceeded so far in introducing a 
principle which must ultimately prevail, but they have already advanced 

* The changes winch have been cautiously and successively made in the system at Cam- 
bridge, illustrate well the tendency of the progress in University education, and offer 
strong evidence in support of the wisdom of the system adopted at Toronto. Formerly 
the Oiily option allowed at Cambridge was to the Mathematical honor-men, who, after 
passing the previous examination, were permitted to lay classics wholly aside, while clas- 
sical honor-men were compelled to take honors in Mathematics also. Relaxations in favor 
of the classical honor-men were, however, made successively, by permitting them to evade 
the honor examination in M athematics, and go out in the Poll or genera! examination for 
the ordinary B. A. degree, at first requiring them to be in the first class of the poll, but 
afterwards removing even this restriction, At length, in 1855, a portion of the Mathema- 
tics required for the poll was thrown into the previous examination as additional subjects, 
and after passing these, a student could then take his degree by proceeding in honors, 
either in Mathematics or in Classics. Finally, in 1S59, the same privilege was extended to 
the triposes of moral and natural sciences, and at present a student, after passing the pre- 
vious examination, (in the middle of his second yeai-,) can proceed to a degree by taking 
honors in any one of these four triposes, without passing an examination in any other 
subject whatever than that of his special tripos. 

The syndicate by whom these last changes were recommended, comprised the names of 
Whewell, Phillpott, Miller, Gfrote, and others of the highest standing, and in the discus- 
sion that took place on its adoption, the only dissentient voice was raised by Dr. Donald- 
son, who objected on the ground that the title B. A. should be restricted to classics and 
mathematics, and that some new title (as in London) ought to be applied to the degree 
obtained in the moral and natural sciences ; but all other speakers concurred in repudiat- 
ing the narrow meaning this attached to the word arts, and contended for placing all the 
triposes en the same footing. When the vote was taken, there were 97 to 21 in favour of 
the moral sciences tripos, &ad that of natural sciences was carried newt. eon. The scheme 
of the previous examination now stands as follows : "One of the four Gospels in Greek, 
Paley's Evidences of Christianity, one of the Greek and one of the Latin Classics, Euclid's 
Elements Bb. I. II. III., and Arithmetic," and additional for Candidates fur honors, 
"Euclid Bb. IV. VI., Elements of Algebia, Elementary Mechanics treated without 
Trigonometry. " 

It is thus evident that the options at Cambridge are not only carried out more exten- 
sively than at Toronto, but that the elementary knowledge of other subjects, required 
previously to the permission of an option, is much less in amount and lower in difficulty 
at Cambridge than at Toronto. 



37 

to a considerable extent in the same direction. The subjoined extract 
from the Commissioners' report will show both what the present practice 
is and what it is recommended that it should become. " The Senate has 
admitted the necessity of affording some liberty of choice to the student 
with regard to the subjects which he is to pursue during the latter part 
of his course. We are of opinion that this liberty should be extended, 
All students will henceforward (from 1850) be permitted to choose at 
pleasure the special studies of Law and History, of Mathematical Science, 
or of Natural Science ; but previously to his examination in any of these 
branches, each candidate must still present himself in the school of 
Literw Humaniores, to be there examined in classics for the third time, 
as well as in philosophy and history. No doubt this restriction wan 
maintained in consequence of an opinion which has long prevailed at 
Oxford with regard to the nature of a liberal education," (and which, it 
would appear, is to be revived in Canada.) " It has been held to be the 
sole business of a University to train the powers of the mind, not to give 
much positive or any professional knowledge ; and the study of classical 
books is regarded as the best means of refining and invigorating the 
mind. The education given has hitherto been the same for all, whether 
clergymen or barristers, medical men or private gentlemen. It has been 
limited to such subjects as Avere presumed to be common to all these 
kinds of life ; and no one has left Oxford, under the system hitherto 
pursued, much more fitted for one profession than for another." (p. 281.) 

" Now the Statute of 1850 was an effort in the right direction ; but its 
present regulations, which still retain the compulsory study of the Literw 
Humaniores to the end of the course, will scarcely remedy the evil." 
(p. 282.) 

" The obvious mode of amending this scheme would be to enact that all 
students, after giving satisfactory evidence of classical knowledge at the 
intermediate examination, (the Jirst* in the University) should be relieved 
from the necessity of continuing the studies of the grammar school, and 
should be at liberty for the latter periodt of their career to devote them- 
selves to pursuits preparatory to their future professions. To this end it 
seems to us that the University might with the best results institute a 
division of studies, with corresponding examination schools, such as 



* Strictly speaking, this examination, though officially called "First Public Examina- 
tion," is now the second in the University, that called Responsions Having preceded it ; 
hut the Commissioners recommend the Kesponsions to he converted into a Matriculation 
Examination, and thus the examination they here speak of would he strictly the first in 
the University. 

f Dr. Ryerson (p. 38 0. P.) finds fault with Mr. Langton for quoting the words of the 
Commissioners, "for the latter period of their career," whilst the heading of the section 
shows that this means " during the last year ;" thus, as he states it, concealing that their 
recommendation is to permit options only during the last year " of a four years' course of 
study." Now it is evident from this, that Dr. Ryerson does not know that the course at 
Oxford is not, as in most Universities, precisely limited — a latitude being allowed to the stu- 
dents. They cannot take a degree earlier than their 13th term, (after a complete three 
years' course,) and candidates for honors are not admitted later than their 18th term. Thus 
also they need not appear at Responsions at any fixed date, but between the 3rd and 7th 
terms, and similarly of the Intermediate Examination. If, therefore, Mr. Langton had 
spsken as precisely as Dr. Ryerson wishes him to do, he would not have spoken truly. 
He used the words of the Commissioners themselves, who spoke vaguely because the pe- 
riod was vague ; but that they did not mean, as interpreted by Dr. Ryerson, the last of a 
fouryears' course, is evident from their elsewhere (p. 272) stating the object of the Inter- 
mediate Examination to be "to promote industry during the second year." 



38 

would better accord with the freedom of choice which should, as we 
think, be left to the student, after the intermediate examination, to be 
passed by all alike." (p. 287.) The Commissioners then proceed to 
explain the four schools, with minor subdivisions, making in all nine 
branches, any of which might be chosen by the student after the middle* 
of his second year, as all that would be requisite to entitle him to a 
degree, viz. : I. Theology ; II. Divided into two, viz. : (1) Mental Philo- 
sophy ; (2) Philology, in which the student may be examined in Greek 
and Latin, or the Oriental and European Languages, or in Comparative 
Philology ; III. Jurisprudence and History, including Political Economy ; 
IV. Divided into two.; (1) Pure and applied Mathematics ; (2) Physical 
Science. 

General Standard of Education. 

In rebutting thus at length the charge that our options have lowered 
the standard of our degree to an extent unprecedented in any other 
University, I have incidentally compared our requirements with others, 
and have shown, that in no sense is the study for our degree below that 
required in our best models, t I might, therefore, have passed over alto- 
gether the general accusation of the inferiority of the standard of educa- 
tion in the University of Toronto, had not Dr. Ryerson offered a proof 
of it, from the alleged inferiority of our students as Grammar School 
Teachers. Now the preparation of young men for teaching Grammar 
Schools, is not the only, not even the highest object of a University ; 
and until means have been provided to increase the remuneration offered, 
it is hopeless to expect that the best men will select such a miserably 
paid profession. Other qualities also are required in a teacher than mere 
learning, as Dr. Ryerson must be well aware, having before him the 
example of a distinguished graduate of Oxford, who lately failed to main- 
tain even a moderately successful school in Toronto — and of two men, 
graduates of British Universities, J selected by himself for his Normal 
and Model Grammar Schools, who, upon trial, proved inefficient. I 
might also say, that even if the imputation were true, it would reflect 
little discredit upon our present course of study, which has only been 
established five years. The first men who entered with our present 
course, and have pursued it throughout, only graduated in June last ; 
and to test the present University by the men it has hitherto produced, 
would be much like looking for fruit the year after planting an orchard 
But I also have looked over the returns of the Grammar School Inspec] 

* This should be "after the end of his second year." 

f To exhibit more fully how groundless is this charge, a statement is annexed of the num- 
ber of subjects in classics and mathematics in which an examination is required by various 
Universities, before the option of omitting tliem can be exercised : — 

In Classics.— Cambridge, 3; Oxford, 11 ; London, 13. A. 6, B. 6c. 2: Toronto, 7, and, 
with rare exceptions, 11. 

In Mathematics. — Cambridge, 4; Oxford, 2; London, 10 (not all necessary) ; Toronto, ti. 

£ Dr. Ryerson's reply (p. 40 C. P.) has a long paragraph, headed as usual. "Mr. Lanir 
ton's Mis-statements," denying the correctness of this. No names were given for obvious 
reasons, of which Dr. Ryerson takes advantage to suppose that Mr. Langton meant as one 
of these graduates a person who was no graduate at all, quite ignoring the fact that there 
was a third master selected by Dr. Ryerson, and found for some reasons inefficient, who 
was a graduate of Dublin. Tne very defence made by Dr. Ryerson in bath the cases he 
has taken, proves all that was asserted in the text, viz. : that a man may have abundance 
of learning, and yet be deficient iu some of the qualities which are essential to the making 
of a good schoolmaster. 



tors, whose own evidence the Committee cm call for, and 1 say unhe- 
sitatingly, that their returns do not bear out Dr. Ryerson's statement of 
any inferiority in our students as compared with those of other colleges.' 1 ' 
That such a charge against the kind of instruction given in University 
College should come from Dr. Ryerson, whose only Canadian Master in 
his Model Grammar School has been selected from our graduates, does, I 
confess, surprise me ; especially when I remember a formal proposition 
made by him not very long since, for the foundation of certain Scholar- 
ships in connection with University College, .for the express purpose of 
educating Grammar School Masters. This proposition, which will be 
found recorded in our Minutes, was rejected by the Senate, because we 
thought Ave had already a sufficient number, of Scholarships provided, 
without establishing 10 more; because we thought X30 a-y ear a suffi- 
cient stipend, whereas he proposed £50 a-year for his ; because ours 
are awarded for proficiency in the honor as well as the pass subjects, and 
his candidates were to be examined in the mere common pass subjects of 
the first year only ; and because ours are open to the whole Province, 
whilst no one was to be allowed to compete for his, except those Avho 
came with a recommendation from the Council of Public Instruction. 
I think the Committee will agree with me, that this proposition is an 
instructive comment, not only upon the alleged incompetency of Univer- 
sity College for preparing Grammar School Teachers, but also upon the 
extravagance and exclusiveness with which we are charged, and upon the 
desire which Dr. Ryerson expresses to maintain a high standard of 
education. 



(5) General Policy of a Provincial University. 

Having now disposed of the several heads under which the Petitioners 
have brought charges against the management of the University, it 
remains only for me to speak to the general question of the policy of 
denominational or non-denominational Colleges, supported by the State, 
and of establishing one College, which shall be thoroughly and efficiently 
organized, or dividing the endowment amongst several. 

As to the first question, I do not desire to enter into the general 
argument. The Committee, 1 conceive, wish to obtain from me facts 
and not opinions, which they have no doubt long since formed for them- 
selves, upon a subject which, for the last twenty years, has been so 
prominently before the country. I would merely remark that, whether 
the prevailing opinion of Upper Canada, that no aid from the State 
should be given towards education exclusively under the control of any 
particular religious denomination, be right or wrong, we should at least 
be consistent in our application of the principle which guides us. Dr. 
Cook is perfectly consistent in the views which he advocates. He holds 
that all education should be in the hands of persons, for whose general 

* Dr. Ryerson, "before the Conference meeting at Kingston (p. 15,) says, that his chal- 
lenge to go over the official reports of the Inspectors was not accepted. W hat, then, is the 
meaning of the abovepassage \ Mr. Langton expressly denied the truth of Dr. Ryerson's 
statement, and Dr. Wilson acMuced in addition the contradiction of them by one of the 
Inspectors themselves. 



to 

character some particular religious community stands sponsor, and quotes 
with approbation the opinion of Baron Alderson, that it is impossible to 
give secular instruction in common, and that it is essential even for a 
teacher of arithmetic to hold orthodox views upon the doctrine of the 
Trinity. If such be the opinion of the majority of the people of Upper 
Canada, then it follows as a matter of course, that the endowment should 
be divided amongst the denominational Colleges, and University College 
should be abolished. But if an opposite opinion prevails, as it would 
appear to do from the constitution of our Common and Grammar Schools, 
I can see no argument against Separate Schools, which does not equally 
apply to separate Colleges. "If," says Dr. Ryerson, in his evidence, 
"aid is provided in support of a College for those who prefer a College 
without any religious character or influence, it is unjust and preposterous 
to deny aid to Colleges for those who demand colleges invested with a 
religious character and influences." And again, "If an institution 
teaches the subject of a collegiate education in connexion with no reli- 
gion, it is to be endowed ; but if it teaches the same subject in connex- 
ion with any religious persuasion, it is to be proscribed. Thus the 
religious character of a college is a disqualification for public aid ! Can 
any thing be more monstrous V 1 Read Schools for Colleges, and you 
have the argument for Separate Schools forcibly put. Again, in his 
report of 1856, Dr. Ryerson says, " It is only, therefore, for very grave 
causes, that the State can be justified in allowing any portion of the 
population to be isolated from a system of public instruction. But 
where this is claimed, with the avowed view to the interests of a religious 
persuasion, the answer is, ' The State has nothing to do with the peculiar 
interests of sects, but has every thing to do with the school education of 
its youth.' The State equally tolerates and protects the former, but it 
largely provides for the latter. As, therefore, a system of Public Schools 
is based upon public interests, members of no sect or religious persuasion 
can claim on constitutional or public grounds, that any of such schools 
should be made sectarian, or that public funds should be expended for 
the support of sectarian schools at all, much less that such schools should 
be placed on the same footing as Public Schools. The sole object of 
public schools is secular education ; the leading object of sectarian schools 
is sectarian interests — with which the State does not interfere where 
there is no semblance of union between Church and State." Here, if 
you read Colleges for Schools, the contrary argument is still more forcibly 
sustained.'"' 

* These are not the only instances in which Dr. Ryerson's faith in non-sectarian public 
instruction, upon which his whole character as a public man is based, seems to be in a very 
unsettled condition. In his reply, (p. 43 C. P.,) there is an apparent admission that the 
Grammar Schools should be rendered denominational. "Granting that a defect exists in the 
Grammar Schools, that the pi'imary education does not aff rd sufficient opportunity for 
religious instruction," &c. How long will it be before a similar doubt extends to the Com- 
mon Schools'? 

Religious instruction cannot be given except in connexion with a denomination, whether 
at a Common School, a Grammar School, or a College ; but a general oversight over the 
moral conduct of students, and the maintenance of religious habits may be as well under- 
taken by a purely secular, as by a denominational institution. This Dr. Ryerson can 
clearly perceive to be the fact, in a non-denominational institution under his own control ; 
though he thinks it impossible if under the control of others. In his letter to Mr. Hiucks, 
in 1852, Dr. Ryerson, speaking of the former University, (with what truth may be doubtful, ) 
complains that no oversight was exercised in this respect," and he adds, " I do not think 
this need be so, constituted as the University now is; it is not so in the administration ot 
the Provincial Normal School." So also in his report upon Collegiate education, New 



41 

But putting the religious argument aside altogether, and Supposing a 
College to be as free from denominational bias as Victoria is claimed to 
be, when it is no longer to the liberality of the Methodist persuasion, but 
to the sympathies of the public at large that the appeal is made ; is it 
for the interest of the country that the endowment should be scattered 
in small sums over the country in support of a number of local institu- 
tions 1 I entirely concur in the general principle of the London Univer- 
sity, that students, wherever educated, should have the same facilities for 
obtaining scholastic honors, — the principle upon which our University 
was constituted, and which has been fully acted on by the Senate • but I 
also believe that it was a wise policy to found one College, free to all, 
having no advantages over any others, except what its greater educational 
capabilities might naturally afford it. I should be sorry to see the smaller 
Colleges closed, be they denominational or otherwise, and I should wish 
to see them, and I do not yet despair of seeing them, sending their fair 
quota to the examinations of the Provincial University, and sharing in 
the Scholarships and Honors which it has provided. But at least one 
College should be sustained by the State, in which every branch of learn 
ing and science, which forms a recognised part of a liberal education, can 
be taught efficiently under the best instructors. It cannot be expected 
that the minor Colleges would keep up a teaching staff embracing all the 
numerous ramifications of modern science, and it is hardly to be desired 
that they should, for the number of Professors would thus become unne- 
cessarily multiplied, — if thoroughly efficient, at a cost altogether dispro- 
portioned to the number of students, — or what is far more probable, as a 
mere repetition in unnecessary profusion of an imperfect and incompetent 
model. But there is nothing to hinder them from having competent men 
in some of the most essential departments ; and as the preferences for 
special studies of the ruling denomination, or the tastes of each locality 
dictated, or from the lucky acquisition of some eminently successful 
teacher, each College would gradually acquire, as has been the case in 
England, a reputation for success in particular departments. The system 
of options already adopted, and which must hereafter ever form the basis 
of a University scheme, would give their students the fullest opportunity 
of carrying off their share of honors and emoluments ; and if the prefer- 
ence of the petitioners for one or two time-hallowed studies, over the 
more modern extended course be correct, the superiority of their scheme 
of instruction would be manifested. But the Provincial College should 

Brunswick, he says, that 'the evidence' of the truths, and morals of Christianity 
should lie at the foundation of all Collegiate instruction," referring even to the introduction 
of what he calls the Normal School system into University College, Toronto. And he adds 
that, " Where a boarding-house is retained in the College for those who prefer it, provision 
is, or should be, made for the observance of all the duties of a Christian family." But 
when he comes to speak of University College, in his present position as a claimant for 
part of the endowment, he finds fault with the daily prayers with which, as in every well- 
ordered establishment, the business of the day commences and closes, and with the 
lectures on Natural Theology and the Evidences of Christianity in which all denominations 
may join. " Its duty," he says, " was to teach secular branches of education, irrespective 
of all religion — leaving every thiog pertaining to religion to the religious denominations. " 
There is not any thing in the tissue of misrepresentation and vulgarity put forward by the 
Reverend Superintendent more discreditable than his sneer at the unpretending religious 
exercises, as now practised in University College, under the auspices of the Dean of 
Residence, Mr. Buckland, whose high moral and Christian character is so well known in 
Cauaia, but whom he represents as having "got through the prayers in three jerks." — (P. 
21, C. P.) 

F 



42 

make provision for every thing that it is desirable to include in a Univer- 
sity course. To leave the selection of studies to the individual Colleges, 
would be to run the risk of leaving some important subject unrepresented, 
and would drive our youth to go elsewhere to gain the desired knowledge ; 
to prescribe a uniform course for all, would be, as I have said, to multiply 
teachers unnecessarily, to force upon Victoria History and English 
Literature, which Dr. Ryerson thinks are already sufficiently taught in 
the Grammar Schools, and Modern Languages upon Queen's, whose 
Principal thinks them not only an unnecessary, but a positively injurious 
addition to Academical studies. The present University Act provides 
every thing that is requisite for such an organisation, which I think the 
best adapted to the state of the country, and any modifications in the 
Constitution of the Senate, or in other minor particulars, could easily be 
introduced even without additional legislation. My own idea of the best 
constitution for that body would be, that a certain fixed number should 
be appointed by the Crown, that each College which sent up a certain 
number of Students for examinations should be entitled to elect one 
member, and after a certain number of Students two members, and that 
the Graduates yearly assembled in convocation, should elect certain other 
members — it being provided that if any affiliated College surrendered its 
charter, or as long as it held its charter in abeyance, all the graduates of 
such College should rank as graduates of the Provincial University. I 
should also think it advisable that all members of the Senate, whether 
elected or appointed, should hold their seats only for a fixed term of years, 
but should be re-eligible. 

As to the endowment, having shown the cost of similar institutions 
elsewhere, I do not believe that it will for some years to come much 
exceed what is requisite to keep up the Provincial College in full efficiency, 
and the University with its expenditure, in maintaining a Provincial 
Library and Museum, competent examiners and a liberal allowance for 
Scholarships. If any considerable surplus should arise, — and I agree 
with the petitioners that all extravagance should be discouraged and pre- 
vented, for which the Visitor has ample powers, — such surplus might 
most profitably in my opinion be devoted, under such regulations as 
Parliament might make in accordance with the 54th clause, to an object 
in which all the Colleges have an equal interest, and not only the Col- 
leges but the whole country, viz. : the improvement of our Grammar 
Schools. This is at present the weakest point in our whole educational 
system. We have admirable Common Schools, and a liberal appropria- 
tion for the Normal and Model Schools ; we have a staff of professors 
connected with the Provincial College, who would reflect credit upon any 
similar body even in England, and the denominational Colleges have, I 
believe, under considerable difficulties, accomplished their work well. 
But in the higher schools we are unfortunately deficient, not from the 
lack of men to undertake them, so much as from the want of funds from 
which to provide a stipend liberal enough to attract thoroughly qualified 
teachers. Perhaps the best way of doing this would be to found certain 
annual allowances which should be awarded on examination, and should 
be tenable only by persons actually engaged in teaching Grammar Schools, 
or employed as tutors or professors in incorporated Colleges not otherwise 
endowed by the State. — As the word fellowship seems appropriated to a 
connexion with a particular College, such recipients of stipends from the 



43 

University funds might be called "associates," or some equivalent term, 
and the emoluments might be held for a limited term of years. 



Dr. Cook's University Scheme Examined. 

The scheme propounded by Dr. Cook would, no doubt, have been im- 
proved in its details, had he had an opportunity of maturely considering 
them, and I will not therefore judge it by its minor arrangements. But it 
appears to me, apart from its denominational aspect, to be based upon 
three unsound principles. 1. It establishes a uniform, and, therefore, 
necessarily limited, course of study for all, in direct opposition to the 
practice of the best Universities, and the strong recommendation of both 
the Oxford and Cambridge Commissioners, whose guiding principle is 
liberty to individual choice. This it does, not only in accordance with 
Dr. Cook's individual opinions as to what are the most important branches 
of study, but as a necessary consequence of the equal subdivision of 
Government aid ; for it is impossible that several small bodies can be so 
organised as to afford much opportunity of selection to .the students. 
This can only be accomplished by one large institution, or by several 
small ones united under one superintending power, but each selecting its 
own favourite branches, or, as I recommend, by both united. This 
variety in the means of study is not inconsistent with uniformity in the 
qualifications required by the general superintending body. The Univer- 
sity must still regulate the choice of departments which it would permit, 
the relative values which it would assign to each, and the uniform stan- 
dard of proficiency in each, which it required as a qualification for its 
degree or its honors. A high honor at Cambridge has a definite and well 
appreciated value, though one man obtained it in mathematics alone, and 
another by classics ; and the London M. A. is equally valuable, whether 
obtained on an examination in Classics, Mathematics, or Mental and 
Moral Sciences. 

2. It is based upon the extremest views of decentralization. Dr. Cook 
admits the greater stimulus to intellectual activity in a numerously at- 
tended institution, but thinks it counterbalanced by a greater chance of 
moral corruption. I am by no means sure that a youth, who has soon to 
go out into the world without any control, is not the better for a pre- 
paratory training amongst those of his own age, with such supervision as 
can always be exercised in*a College ; and that a higher tone of morality 
may not be cultivated under the influence of the public opinion of a large 
body, than by mixing only with a limited society. I am very sure that 
if he has mixed freely with men of various habits of thought, and various 
religious denominations, if he has met upon equal terms with his superiors 
and his inferiors, both in intellectual power and worldly position, if he 
has seen bright examples to emulate as well as evil ones to avoid, he will 
be a better member of society, and freer from those petty prejudices 
which always grow up in a narrow circle, and not the least so in a 
strictly denominational College. But as a question of education, in the 
sense of acquiring knowledge, there can be doubt at all. One young man 
of really superior attainments exercises an exciting influence, both upon 
his fellow students and his teachers, which you can rarely hope to find 



44 

in a small body. Emulation is the great spnr, especially amongst the 
young, and the larger the body of competitors the greater is the emulation 
excited. The reason is plain. The best man in twenty, having no one 
further to contend with, is apt to be content with, and over-estimate his 
position ; but bring him into competition with five more men similarly 
situated, each urges the other on, and you obtain five men in the hundred, 
each superior to what he would have been in the narrower sphere. The 
mere encounter of such men at an annual examination is not sufficient, it 
is the daily contest in the lecture room which keeps up an animation in 
their studies. But it is not only from studying the common College 
course, not even with the emulation of the common lecture room, that the 
great benefit of a University education is derived. In the free intercourse 
of the College every student finds some one well informed uuon a subject 
of which he is comparatively ignorant, and gets indications which help 
and direct him in his private studies. He learns to appreciate talent, 
and to have a taste and respect for learning, even when he does not him- 
self excel. He comes out from College a man of enlarged and cultivated 
mind, which no number of books of Livy, or propositions of Euclid would 
ever have made him. These advantages can be but partially obtained in 
a small community, and though small Colleges will doubtless continue to 
exist for local and denominational reasons, and perhaps not without some 
special advantages, I cannot think it a commendable scheme, which would 
systematically break up the youth, who seek a College education, into 
numerous small societies.* 

(3.) But if this decentralizing system is bad in itself, even if all were 
amply endowed ; to divide a limited sum so that no College would be 
efficiently supported, must be fatal to the superior education of the 
country. It is idle to say that because Victoria and Queen's are the only 
bodies petitioning, they alone, with the addition perhaps of Trinity, 
would claim a share. When the principle was once established, Knox's 
College and other institutions, now existing only as Theological Schools, 
would establish secular chairs and assert their right to a free distribution. 
Nor would the demand be confined to colleges connected with a particu- 
lar religious persuasion. Local interests would come into play, and every 
large town would claim to have its college. Already there are in Upper 
Canada twelve institutions of this kind in existence, or with charters of 
incorporation, and this year two new oues have sent in memorials to 
obtain a share with Kingston and Cobourg of the Government allowance. 
Br. Cook thinks that he has provided a remedy to prevent them from 
becoming too numerous, but even the existing ones he can only support 
by cutting off from the teaching staff several departments, which, though 



* Dr. Ryerson (p. 42 C. P.) appears to think that his argument in favour of a great num- 
ber of small scattered colleges, in preference to one central one, is supported by the fact 
of there being a great many small Colleges at Oxford and Cambridge. Now even there 
the superiority of the large colleges as places for study, is evident from the greater pro- 
portionate number of first class honor men that they produce. Thus, at Cambridge, the 
two large colleges, Trinity and St. John's, form about half the University, and the fifteen 
small colleges the other half (the number of entries as given by Dr. Ryerson— from Hevwood 
—were 248 and 251 respectively); but the first-class honor men during the last ten years sent 
out by the two large colleges were to those from the fifteen small as 3 to 2. But besides 
this, it must be remembered that all these small colleges are congregated together in one 
country town, with the freest intercourse of the students amongst each other, and that the 
advantage of the competition of numbers is almost as much felt as if the whole University 
were one college. 



45 

thought unnecessary or even injurious at Queen's, are fostered and encou- 
raged by the British Commissioners. Dr. Ryerson, however, contemplates 
with satisfaction the possible establishment of 10 Faculties in competing 
Colleges, each as he proposes receiving £1,500. What sort of a teaching 
staff they could afford to maintain, is evident from the complaints of 
Queen's and Victoria that their present means are inadequate. For it 
must be remembered that if the Government aid is proposed to be in- 
creased, the means supplied by voluntary contributions would be dimin- 
ished ; not only because it is the tendency of all Government assistance 
to paralyse individual liberality, but also because this source of income 
would be exhausted. The number of young men who seek, or can spare 
time for, a College career is limited in all countries, and a multiplication 
of Colleges would not bring an equal increase of students ; the receipts 
from fees would therefore be reduced. • Denominational piety and 
individual liberality have also their bounds, and the majority of men 
who would contribute to such purposes have already done what they can 
afford. What aid could be expected from Municipalities to Institutions, 
from which the bulk of the people would derive no immediate advan- 
tage, may be judged from the starving condition of our Grammar 
Schools. Other sources of income to supplement the Government 
grant being dried up, we should have ten or fifteen miserable at- 
tempts at a college, and should have destroyed as noble an endowment 
as any young country ever possessed. Nor can I see any safeguard in 
Dr. Cook's tests of the efficiency of the colleges. A certain number of 
professors is to be required. Professors will not be wanting if £ 1,500 is 
to be divided amongst them ; but as to the efficiency of the professors, it 
may be as difficult to determine that by legislation as it has been found 
in the case of Grammar Schoolmasters. Then the Senate is to determine 
the standard of education. Surely Dr. Cook must have forgotten that 
the Senate, which, in its legislative capacity, is to fix the standard, and 
in its examining capacity is to ascertain whether that standard has been 
reached, is to be composed mainly of those professors, or persons elected 
by them. The professors may not, as has been unj ustly alleged of the 
present Senate, fix the amount of their own salaries, but practically they 
will determine whether they are to have any salaries at all. You cannot 
by law fix a standard of education. It may sound paradoxical, but it is 
nevertheless true, that practically it is the students who fix it. If they 
are badly prepared the standard is low, for you cannot find Examiners 
who Avill reject the majority of the students. The only way to obtain a 
high standard is to provide such teachers as can bring their students up 
to it, and this can only be done by employing a sufficient number to 
enable them to do the work effectually, and by giving them such a remu- 
neration as will ensure the obtaining of able men. 

Quebec, April 19, 1860. 

JOHN LANGTON. 



APPENDIX 



I. Comparative Statement of the requirements of the Principal British and 
Canadian Universities and Medical Schools for a Degree or License 
in Medicine, submitted by John Langton, Vice Chancellor of the 
University of Toronto, April %?>rd, in reply to question 457 — "Have 
you any observations to offer with reference to the School of Medicine 
in the University ? " 

T put in a statement in a tabular form, of the requirements of different 
Schools of Medicine, both in the Old Country and in Canada. Those in 
the Old Country are extracted from the Edinburgh Medical Journal of 
October, 1857 — those of the Canadian Schools from their own prospect- 
uses. There will be observed a remarkable difference between the two, 
namely, that the British Schools require a less attendance upon lectures, 
and a larger attendance upon the Hospitals, owing, in all probability, to 
the greater abundance of hospitals there than in Canada. As compared 
with each other, the requirements of the Canadian Schools of Medicine 
are very similar. 

I would, at the same time, state what the work of Matriculation 
Examinations in the Canadian Institutions is, — 

Matriculation Examination, Victoria. — Satisfactory evidence of classical 

and general attainments. In 
Classics — London Pharmaco- 
poeia, Gregoiy's Conspectus, or 
Sallust or any other Latin book. 
" " McGill's. — Proof of competent classical at- 

tainments either by examination 
or otherwise. 
" " Queen's. — Proof of classical attainments. 

" " Toronto.— Sallust Catilina. 

Elements of Chemistry and Na- 
tural History. 
Arithmetic and Algebra. 
English Grammar and Composi- 
tion. 
Outlines of English History. 
Outlines of Ancient and Modern 
Geography. 
(Greek and French for honors only.) 
With regard to the Matriculation in Medicine, it stands upon an entirely 
different footing from Matriculation in Arts. The object of a Matricula- 
tion Examination in Arts is to shew that the student is sufficiently far 
advanced to go on with his studies in the prescribed course. The object 



47 

of a Matriculation Examination in Medicine is to ascertain whether he lias 
finished his studies in those departments in which he will never be exa- 
mined again. I am aware that any examination for Matriculation will be 
very partially acted upon, and it is impossible at any one examination, to 
decide whether a man is a sufficiently well educated man to fit him for the 
Profession of Medicine. I entirely agree with Dr. Cook, that it would 
be a great deal better, if he were required, before proceeding with Medi- 
cine, to be either a graduate in Arts, or to have taken a certain number 
of definite courses in Arts. But no one University can introduce this 
system, when it is not the custom in other Universities ; it can only be 
done by the combined action of them all, and I hope it may yet be 
done. 






48 



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49 



IL Final Statement by Mr. Langton, made be/ore the Committee, the 

26th April. 

I can acquit myself of having given rise to any of the personalities 
which have unfortunately been introduced into the present investigation. 
The petitioners have brought forward certain arguments against the pre- 
sent constitution and management of the University, which I have met, 
with what success it is for the committee to judge. They have also 
adduced certain statements of fact and figures, to the accuracy of which I 
have demurred, but I have stated my objections as temperately as is con- 
sistent with my distinct denial of their truth. No attempt has been 
made to impugn the correctness of the figures I have given, — I allude 
principally to my statements as to the comparative cost of our Professor- 
ships, Examinations, and Scholarships, as compared with those of other 
Universities ; but Dr. Ryerson has accused me of misleading the Com- 
mittee on this latter point by confounding together University and 
College Scholarships. A reference to my evidence will show that I have 
in all cases, where instituting the comparison, shown the distinction in 
this respect, and have argued that our system of University Scholarships 
is much more liberal and more calculated to promote the end for which 
they were established, than when they are exclusively connected with 
a particular college. 

In answer to the objections adduced against our system of options as 
unprecedented and injurious, I have shewn by a reference to the course 
prescribed in other Universities, and to the recommendations of the Royal 
Commissioners, that we are supported by the example of those whom we 
may well take as our models, in arranging a scheme by which an extended 
course of study may be combined with a thorough mastery of the special 
branches selected by the student. Here, also, Dr. Ryerson has attempted 
to show that, in quoting from the Commissioners on the Queen's Univer- 
sity, Ireland, I have misrepresented their recommendations. But the 
passages which I have requested the clerk to read at the table, show that 
the subjects which they recommended should not be required from all 
students after the second year, embrace, as I stated, Classics, Mathema- 
tics and Modem Languages. 

There is another part of my argument which is more a question of 
opinion than of fact, viz., 'the relative standard required by us and by 
other Universities. It will be admitted that the full course in each 
department, including Honour Work, is with us a high standard, and we 
have had students who would have distinguished themselves in any Uni- 
versity, but it never was argued, and it would be absurd to suppose, 
that our students, as a rule, could compare with the picked men of 
Great Britain. What I have argued is this : (1) that we have wisely 
lowered the matriculation examination, which was too high ; but that 
even now it is as high as it has been thought prudent to insist upon at 
home, being rather above that at London and Cork, and the only equivalent 
examination at Cambridge, though rather below that at Belfast, and the 
only equivalent examination at Oxford ; (2) that the standard for a 
common degree is as high as in the British Universities ; and (3) that 
the stage at which we permit students to branch off into the special 

G 



50 

department each may select, is very similar to that already established in 
the same Universities, or strongly recommended by the Royal Commis- 
sioners. The relative difficulty of the subjects proposed for examination 
is, as I have stated, a matter of opinion, and can only be judged of by a 
scholar, and I therefore desire upon this point to take the evidence of a 
gentleman unconnected with the University, whose ability to speak upon 
the subject is well known to the Committee.* 



* Vide evidence of E. A. Meredith, Esq., Assistant Provincial Secretary, ante p. 28. 



ADDRESS 



BY 

DANIEL WILSON, LL.D. 

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AND ENGLISH LITERATURE 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, TORONTO, 

BEFORE 

THE UNIVERSITY COMMITTEE. 



REPORTED BY J. K. EDWARDS, ESQ. 



Mr. Chairman, 

I observe from the minutes of this Committee, that you have now been 
sitting for a month, and up to this time no representative of University 
College has appeared before you. You wisely determined that those who 
have prayed for an enquiry into the management of the University and 
College should in the first place submit to you the grounds on which they 
preferred their charge against us, and that afterwards we should be heard 
in reply. I am deeply conscious of the responsibility of the position I 
occupy as the sole representative of University College. I should have 
been better pleased if some of my colleagues who have been longer in this 
country, and are more familiar with the habits of Canadian society and 
the feelings of Canadian legislators, had appeared in our behalf. Never- 
theless, I feel this confidence that I have a good cause, which can be 
subjected to the closest investigation, without any apprehension on our 
part as to the result. Had I addressed you at an earlier stage, the many 
details of the course of study, the matriculation examinations, the honour 
work, <fec, which have been objected to, would have naturally formed 
subjects of comment by me, but they have already been so ably dealt with 
by the Vice-Chancellor of the University that I feel myself at liberty to 
omit much, which at an earlier period I should have deemed it my duty 
to submit to the Committee. 



52 
The Vice-Chancellor. 

As members of the Senate we have felt no slight satisfaction in having 
as our representative a gentleman who, after graduating in the University 
of Cambridge, has spent the most important years of his later life in 
Canada, and alike as a member of the Legislature, and in the occupation 
of offices of high trust and responsibility, has won for himself a character 
of undoubted probity and sterling worth. To our Yice- Chancellor, 
theiefore, as one familiar with the details of the English Universities, I 
may fitly resign the defence of our Canadian system on all those points 
on which we have deliberately and advisedly departed from such ancient 
models. But there is one statement in your evidence, of a somewhat 
personal nature, to which it seems indispensable that I should refer at the 
outset. 

The Rev. Dr. Ryerson has paid me the unlooked for compliment of 
selecting me as the foremost of " several eminent individuals" from whose 
writings he has presented extracts to you on the subject of education. 
As the passages will appear in his printed evidence, along with my own, 
I need not read the quotations, which occur in a review article, written 
upwards of four years ago. I presume it must be ascribed to some acci- 
dental oversight that he has represented two passages occurring in the 
same brief article, within a few pages of each other, as opinions published, 
the one in "March, 1856," and the other in "August, 1858." It is not 
always convenient, as Dr. Ryerson must by this time be well aware, to 
have the opinions of former years thus reproduced. Happily, however, 
those quotations express opinions which I still retain unchanged. But 
the Committee will form a very false idea of what these are, if they judge 
of them by the detached fragments of the article which have been selected 
by Dr. Ryerson as alone suited to the line of argument he has adopted. 
Reviewing certain educational papers, then recently published, and 
especially an exceedingly grandiloquent discourse delivered by the Chan- 
cellor of an American University, in which, while speaking of the English 
University system with great disparagement, he exhibited gross ignorance 
of all which specially pertains to it, I took occasion to commend the 
thoroughness of that system, in "the subjects specially cultivated," viz., 
classics and mathematics ; and quoting the American scholar, Mr. Bristed's 
"Five years in an English University," where he describes the healthy 
and vigorous intellectual powers acquired by a Cambridge "honour man," 
I remarked, "to such a man of ripe mind and studious habits, the acquisi- 
tion of a modern language such as the French or Italian is a mere pastime, 
and the German only a pleasant task. What would he say to the substi- 
tution of them by our university reformers as equivalents for the Greek 
and Latin — the sole keys to all the treasures of Theology, Philosophy and 
Science?" 

An incompetent adviser on higher Education. 

I desire to speak personally of Dr. Ryerson with the utmost respect. 
In the earlier years of my residence in Canada, I have been in habits of 
frequent friendly intercourse with him ; and have been wont to look up 
to him as, to a great extent, the builder up of that unsectarian common 
school system of which Canada may well be proud. His very official 



53 

connexion with a non-denominational system of education so entirely in 
accordance with my own views, led me frequently to consult him on 
educational details in relation to the University, at a time when he had 
a seat on its senate, while I was excluded from it. But the duty I owe 
to the College, in the responsible position I here occupy, compels me to 
draw the attention of the Committee to the fact — forced into much more 
important prominence by the general nature of the evidence already 
given by Dr. Ryerson, and produced at his suggestion, than even by the 
use he has made of quotations from this slight article — that part at least 
of the otherwise unaccountable conduct he is now pursuing in his assault 
on our University system must be ascribed to his ignorance of the details 
of a College and University course, consequent on his never having 
enjoyed the advantage of a University education. 

I say this in no disparagement of Dr. Ryerson ; for if it were possible 
by such means to accoimt for all that is otherwise indefensible in the 
course he has pursued before this Committee, his errors would be venial 
indeed. For it can be charged as blamable to no man, that he received 
his education in this province at a time when there was scarcely a gram- 
mar school within its borders. He is not to blame for this. But he is 
to blame for insisting on laying down the law on matters in which he has 
not had the slightest experience, and to men who have been trained in 
the best Universities of Great Britain. To this cause I must ascribe the 
fact that Dr. Ryerson was manifestly unaware of the distinction very 
clearly apparent to all familiar with the English University system, that 
my remarks referred exclusively to honour men. 

I am confirmed in this belief by the quotation of another passage, from 
the very next page in which I referred to the fact that Oxford and Cam- 
bridge furnish professors of classics and mathematics— their own special 
departments, — to all schools and colleges of the empire. But what has 
this to do with Dr. Ryerson's views on options, matriculation, &c. 1 The 
present professor of mathematics in Edinburgh University, was a senior 
wrangler of Cambridge — the highest honour man of his year ; but does 
Dr. Ryerson, therefore, assume that the poll men, who constitute the 
great majority of Cambridge students, would form "highly qualified 
teachers" even for common schools? And yet when I remember that in 
a letter Dr. Ryerson has given in evidence relative to his own scheme for 
grammar school scholarships in University College, he actually proposes 
to complete their whole college education in a single year* I may assume 

* Extract from a letter addressed to the Chancellor of the University of Toronto, by the 
Rev. Dr. Ryerson, March 23rd, 1857, containing his " Suggestions for the establishment 
of Exhibitions in University College, for Masterships of Grammar Schools ; each to be of 
the value of £50, and tenable for one year only." 

" Each Exhibition to be bestowed upon the following conditions : 

" 1. — The Exhibitioner must have taught a Common School in Upper Canada ; 

" 2. — He must have attended the Provincial Normal School at least one session ; 

" 3. — He must have been recommended by the Council of Public Instruction ; • 

" 4. — He must engage to teach a Grammar School in Upper Canada for at least three 
or four years ; and provide security for the fulfilment of this promise, or refund the 
amount of his Exhibition, with interest. 

" One of the most pressing wants of the Grammar Schools, is that of diily qualified 
Masters. Several of the Schools are now closed on that account — the Boards of Trustees 
being unable to procure Masters qualified according to law. 

" In our present Normal and Model Schools, and in our proposed Grammar School, the 
Exhibitioners would receive a thorough preparatory training, both as students and 



54: 

that lie did so entirely misunderstand me as to interpret my remarks as 
equally applicable to every graduate of Cambridge or Oxford. 

It could not need the weight of any testimony from me to confirm the 
value of the language of Plato and Aristotle, or of Cicero and Tacitus ; 
nor was it for any such purpose it was quoted ; but to make me appear, 
per force, as a witness in favour of the line of argument by which Dr. 
Ryerson has endeavoured to discredit the system of options adopted by 
the University of Toronto. The truth is, it is just because Latin was 
almost the sole language in which all works on Theology, Philosophy and 
Science were written ; and that Aristotle constituted the recognised foun- 
tain head from Avhence they drew, that in the 16 th and 17 th centuries 
Oxford wisely gave the pre-eminence to classical studies in her University 
curriculum; and it is just because this has ceased to be the case, and that 
German and French are now the keys to so much modern Philosophy 
and Science, that all wise University reformers are learning to give to 
modern languages the place they justly claim in a liberal education. 

A strange contrast. 

In calling in question the system of options introduced into our Uni- 
versity, Dr. Ryerson contrasted in very strong and unfavourable terms 
the advantages enjoyed by the students of Yale and Harvard Colleges 
in the United States, with the inferior and lowering system of Toronto 
University. He has spoken of Harvard and Yale, as if these American 
Colleges presented a course of instruction altogether superior to what we 
have been establishing for the benefit of Canadian youth. But yet in 
this very article from which he found it convenient to quote detached 
fragments of what I had written years ago, for a mere temporary pur- 
pose, it by no means tallied with his object to notice this passage quoted 
from Mr. Bristed, an honour graduate of Cambridge, and a distinguished 
American scholar of the present day. " Were I to be questioned," says 
he, "by an educated foreigner, Englishman or Frenchman, German, Hol- 
lander, or Dane, about the standard of Scholarship in our Universities in 
the United States, I would be obliged to answer it is exceedingly low. 
When I went to Yale College in 1835, the first thing that struck me 
was the classical deficiency of many of the students and of some of the 

teachers, in all the subjects in which candidates are examined for matriculation, into the 
University. 

" With this preparation one year's attendance at University College, where, in 
addition to t the able corps of Professors, so many advantages are enjoyed by students in the 
excellent apparatus provided, and in the valuable collections of the Museum and Library, 

WOULD ADMIRABLY QUALIFY THE EXHIBITIONERS FOR THE MASTERSHIPS OF GRAMMAR 

Schools. In some instances they would doubtless persevere until they obtained a degree." 
— Evidence of Select Committee, p. 53. 

Compare this scheme of Dr. Eyerson's, of 1857, rejected by the University on account 
of the inadequate and lowering standard of education it proposed for Grammar School 
teachers, with his statement before the Committee, in 1860 : 

" The individuals connected with myself — the party unconnected with what may be 
called the National University of the country, stand as the conservators of a high standard 
of Education, and appear before you as the advocates of a thorough course of training 
that will discipline, in the most effectual manner, the powers of the mind, and prepare the 
youth of our country for those pursuits and those engagements which demand their atten- 
tion as men, Christians, and patriots ; while the very persons to whom has been allotted 
this great interest, this important trust, stand before you as the advocates of a reduction, of 
a puerile system which has never invigorated the mind, or raised up great men in any 
country."— Dr. Ryerson 's Reply— Evidence, p. 141. 



55 

instructors. Harvard is no better off, and the state of other colleges 
through the country, many of which derive instructors from these two 
New England colleges, may be easily inferred." 

Such is the impartial testimony of an American scholar with respect 
to those very American colleges which Dr. Ryerson has found it suit his 
purpose to laud, in contrast with Toronto University ; the graduates of 
which, I hesitate not to say, would not only compare favourably, but 
would contrast strikingly in their attainments with the graduates of either 
Yale or Harvard. I may remark also that it is a curious illustration of 
Dr. Eyerson's knowledge of the requisites of a university scheme of 
education, to find him urging that whereas for a particular examination 
we name certain definite and prescribed portions of books on which the 
student shall be examined — thereby guaranteeing that those portions 
shall be well and thoroughly got up — Harvard requires the "whole" of 
Caesar, and the " whole" of Livy, &c, instead of prescribing, in accordance 
with the practice of all the British Universities, certain portions, and 
ascertaining by examination that the student has thoroughly mastered 
them. 

Unwise, because untenable Charges. 

A great deal of work has been made in this discussion about the 
question of options. But I almost venture to think, from what I have 
already seen in relation to the feelings of gentlemen on both sides, that by 
this time there are some of those engaged in advocating the cause against 
which I have to defend University College, who regret that this question 
of options was ever brought up, or that they based their claims on unten- 
able charges against us. You have before you the representatives both of 
Queen's and Victoria Colleges, and had they appeared here — as, had they 
been left to their own unbiased judgment, I believe they would have 
done — presenting their claims in the aspect in which Dr. Cook is now 
prepared to rest his cause ; and saying : University education ought to be 
denominational, and that <£2,500 added to the annual income of Queen's 
College, Kingston, would be a great advantage to its funds ; these are 
simple propositions which you could have discussed temperately and im- 
partially, and which we might have found it difficult effectually to resist. 
But those gentlemen, the representatives of Queen's and Victoria 
Colleges, have been betrayed against their better judgments into bringing 
up a set of charges against the University and University College of 
Toronto, which, I venture to say, are utterly untenable, and which the 
Principal of Queen's College has already declared himself ashamed of. 



Our new Model for a Canadian University. 

You had a curious exhibition before the Committee yesterday, which 
was to me, at least, exceedingly instructive. We had the pleasure of 
seeing the Provost of Trinity College, and one of the masters of Dr. 
Eyerson's model grammar school, formerly a professor of Trinity, cross- 
examined by the Doctor, on the peculiar characteristics and special 
virtues of Oxford and Cambridge Universities. You know, gentlemen, 



56 

what these Universities are — wealthily endowed institutions, where the 
accumulated bequests of centuries have been gathered together ; where 
a large number of colleges are collected,* and where chiefly the aristo- 
cracy of England receive their education ; colleges where, unless a man 
can give his son, at the very least, something like $750 a-year, to sustain 
him during his brief term of residence, he had better keep him at home. 
And these are the institutions you are to accept as your models for train- 
ing the youth of Canada in this nineteenth century ! But, besides that, 
there was something amusing in the special points to which your atten- 
tion was directed. I have no great familiarity with the systems of 
Oxford or Cambridge. I was educated in Scottish halls, and it must 
have been scarcely less puzzling to Dr. Cook and other gentlemen of 
Scottish university training, than to myself, while listening to Dr. Ryer- 
son putting Provost Whitaker and Mr. Ambery through their questions 
as to the virtues of Acts and Opponencies at Cambridge, and Responsions 
and other mysterious forms of medieval Oxford, which have survived to 
our day ; very admirable things, in their way, but on which I can pro- 
fess to throw exceedingly little light. Dr. Ryerson, however, has got 
himself up on them ; and, perhaps, if subjected to cross-examination, we 
might succeed in comprehending the merits of those precious relics of 
ancient Oxford, which are to invigorate and restore our University sys- 
tem. With regard to the system of options which we have introduced, I 
need not go into details, as these have been so well and so satisfactorily 
explained by the Yice- Chancellor. I would remind you, however, of 
this, that the very Act under which our University and College exist, 
specifies London University, and not Oxford or Cambridge, as our model, 
— London University, established in the nineteenth century, with a view 
to meeting all the advanced requirements of this age, rather than Oxford 
University, which is understood from vague tradition to have owed its 
origin to a meeting of three monks in a barn, some time in the good old 
times of the Saxon Alfred ; and which from such practical characteristics 
as chiefly distinguish the men it turns out — notwithstanding some note- 
worthy exceptions — does not strike me as precisely the institution to be 
recommended to you as the model for a Canadian University. 

* In his subsequent statement Dr. Ryerson remarks : "We are told that, by multiplying 
colleges we shall reduce the number of our students to an extent almost without precedent 
in any country ;" and in refutation of this he quotes the list of sixteen Cambridge colleges, 
averaging thirty-one students each ; and of twenty-four Oxford colleges, averaging eighteen 
students each, (by a strange misprint it appears in the evidence as 182 !) But the deception 
of averages was never better shown. Those of Cambridge are made up with the help of 
the great open college of Trinity with its 151 new entries, and upwards of 400 under- 
graduates, and St. John's with its 97 entries. With such the following may make shift to 
pass muster : Christ's, 20 ; Clare, 19 ; Pembroke, 10 ; Trinity Hall, 10 ; King's, 4 ; 
Sidney, 8 ; Downing, 4. 

As for Oxford, its list winds up with— St. Edmund's, 7 ; Corpus Christi, 6 ; Magdalene, 
2 ; All Souls', 1 ; New Inn, 1 ; St. Alban's, 0. 

These may suffice to illustrate the deception involved in speaking of the colleges of 
Canada, as though they were identical in any thing else but name with the wealthy corpor- 
ations of Fellows and Scholars of Oxford or Cambridge. The fallacy is obvious to every 
English student, though it may deceive some Canadians. The Rev. Mr. Whittaker thus 
replies to a question of Dr. Ryerson : 

" Ques. 321. — How many Scholarships are there belonging to the University of Cam- 
bridge 1 

Ans.—l cannot say ; but the number of University Scholarships is small, as compared 
with the College Scholarships. But the case is so tinlike that of this country that there is 



57 

The Nev) Canadian System. 

Returning, however, to the system of options, it is one which I feel 
assured only requires to be fully understood to recommend itself to 
acceptance, in the judgment of an intelligent body of Canadian legislators. 
It is very easy for a wealthy English nobleman or gentleman to send his 
son to Oxford or Cambridge, to devote three, four, or five years to 
acquiring the most critical mastery of Latin and Greek ; to be utterly 
incapable of a false quantity ; to be able to compose the most perfect 
Latin verse ; and to prove, it may be, a thorough master in all the little 
niceties of classical refinement ; and then, after he has sown his wild 
oats, and spent ,£700 or .£800, or, perhaps, £1000 sterling, at college, 
to make up his mind what his special profession in life may be. But 
that is not what Canada requires. We want an educational institution 
which shall train our young men for the practical duties of life. And 
when the Legislature of Canada established anew Toronto University 
and University College, on the modern system of the University of 
London, I doubt not you endeavoured to select men to whose judgment 
you could entrust the arrangement of their details. 

For I must crave your attention for a moment, while I correct an 
error, forced upon your acceptance in various forms. Neither the Senate 
of the University nor the College Council have presumed to dictate a 
system of education to this Province.* By the solemn Act of the Legis- 
lature, passed in 1853, the old system was abolished; and in lieu of its 
exclusively classical and mathematical training, the Legislature estab- 
lished chairs of Natural Sciences, Modern Languages, English Literature 
and History ; and prescribed to the University of Toronto, that of Lon- 
don as its model. In full accordance with this, therefore, the Senate 
have aimed at establishing such a system of options as shall practically 
carry out the wishes of the Legislature, and give just encouragement to 
all those departments of knowledge. But so far have they been from 
ignoring or slighting classics and mathematics, that a double number of 
scholarships is apportioned to each of these subjects ; and special 
encouragements are held out to the students to devote their chief energies 
to them throughout the course, t 



* " Now, sir, I think that Dr. Wilson, and the other gentlemen to whom he referred, 
from whose attainments and abilities I wish to detract nothing, mnst themselves admit 
that they came to this country as teachers — he of English literature and language ; the 
rest of certain other branches. He, however, seems to think they did not come for that 
purpose only, but for the more noble, exalted, almost legislative purpose of giving to the 
people of Canada a system of collegiate instruction. Dr. Wilson says,— Shall not we be 
entrusted with determining this question — we all graduates, we all men from old universi- 
ties, and will you pretend, people of Canada, to dictate to us, learned persons, what kind 
of superior education shall be adopted for the training of your youth 1 Sir, I went to Eu- 
rope for the purpose of obtaining persons qualified for special work, but I did not go to 
them to dictate the kind of education to be given here or the manner of giving it. I pro- 
cured them to carry out a system already devised for this country, not to dictate one to us, 
much less to do so in the assuming tone in ichich these words were addressed to you the other 
day. I think these gentlemen, whatever may be their talents, whatever may be their 
attainments, mistook considerably the purpose for which they were brought to this coub- 
try, when they set themselves up for judges as to what kind of superior education the 
people should receive from them." — Dr. Ryerson's Reply — Evidence, p. 144. 

+ By mixing up with the scholarships in the Faculty of Arts, those for Law and Medi- 
cine, with which University College can have no connexion, most exaggerated and false 
H 



58 
The Professors. 

And when the Legislature of Canada thus re-modelled its system of 
instruction, I am justified in presuming that it also endeavoured to 
select for its Professors men who could be entrusted with carrying out 
the details of such a system. I may be pardoned, therefore, if I make 
some special reference to what the men of University College actually 
are. We have at the head of the institution a gentleman who took the 
foremost rank in Trinity College, Dublin, carrying off the gold medal as 
the highest classical scholar of his year. In the Professor of Metaphysics 
we have a repi esentative of the ancient University of Oxford ; a repre- 
sentative of its special characteristics as well as of its learning. We have 
two graduates of Cambridge, both men who took distinguished honours 
in their respective years ; Professor Cherriman, who not only attained 
high rank as a wrangler, but also obtained a fellowship in St. John's 
College, Cambridge ; Dr. Croft, who, after receiving his earlier education 
in England, completed his studies in the famed University of Berlin, 
and mastered his special science of Chemistry under Mitscherlich, one of 
the most celebrated chemists of Europe. The benefits of his knowledge 
thus acquired you now enjoy in frequent cases in the courts of law, as 
well as in the College and University. Another of the College staff, 
Professor Hincks, resigned for his present duties the corresponding chair 
of Natural History, in Queen's College, Cork ; and Professor Chapman 
— who as a Mineralogist takes a rank not inferior to any in the old 
world, — before he was transferred to a chair in Toronto, occupied with 
distinguished credit that of Mineralogy in University College, London. 
Of myself I may be permitted to say this at least, that having some 
familiarity with the specialities of our Scottish educational system, my 
experience may not be without its value, when added to that of others, 
looking on the requirements of our Canadian University from such 
varied points of view.* 

I trust, therefore, it will not seem altogether unreasonable if we 
venture to appeal our case in this form — Are we not fit to be trusted 
with advising in some degree in reference to a course of study for Cana- 
dian students 1 Or do you believe a class of men thus selected from the 

ideas of the number of scholarships have been circulated. The facts are these, in relation 
to the Faculty of Arts : — 

At matriculation there are three scholarships for general proficiency in the subjects ap- 
pointed for all students. 

At matriculation, and in each subsequent year, there are two in Greek and Latin classics, 
two in matJiematics, and one in each of : natural sciences ; modern languages with history ; 
of ethics, metaphysics, &c, and in oriental languages. 

These, if held on the English plan, would only count as eight scholarships in all. But 
because the better plan has been introduced of compelling their holders to compete against 
all rivals, at the end of each year, this is made an excuse for counting each year as a dis- 
tinct scholarship, when comparing it with those held for a term of years. The injustice 
and untruthfulness of this is obvious. 

Again, it will be seen by the above scheme that double encouragement is held out to the 
pursuit of Classics and Mathematics, over all the other subjects, from the beginning to the 
end of the course. 

* Ques. 264. — Notwithstanding all you have said to the disparagement of the institution, 
is it not the fact that University College has an able and efficient staff of professors, and 
do not the students attending it enjoy great advantages from the excellent apparatus, 
library and museum 1 

Dr. Ryersons answer. — Yes. I entertain a high opinion of the professors at that 
institution, and I have always so expressed myself. 



59 

different Universities of Britain are likely deliberately to pursue a plan 
for deteriorating the education of this country, by admitting into the 
University youths not fit to enter a Grammar School, and by giving 
degrees to men whose inferiority will degrade the character of the Uni- 
versity of our adopted country, and on which our own future reputation 
depends 1 

I think I might fairly stake the whole question on such ground. But 
that is not the ground on which we shall appeal : for I maintain that the 
course we have adopted is one which will stand the thoroughest investi- 
gation. I know that during the time it was in deliberation, since I had 
a seat as member of the Senate, we have met week after week, and sat 
patiently over every detail of the system many a time long after mid- 
night. 

Conduct of Professors on the Senate. 



It has indeed been strangely enough advanced by Dr. Ryerson, in his 
defence against certain complicity in objectionable acts of the Senate, 
that he, being appointed to a seat there specially in his official capacity 
as Superintendent of Education, attended rarely except when he had 
some particular purpose in view. It seems, moreover, that it is actually 
made a charge against certain of the Professors, that since our appoint- 
ment as members of Senate, our names are to be found frequently on its 
sederunts ! I confess I have exposed myself to this charge. It has not 
been my practice to accept the membership of any Board without intend- 
ing to fulfil its duties. During the whole time that I have been a 
member of the Senate, I believe I have only been absent twice from its 
meetings, and on those two occasions from indisposition ; and from the 
meetings of the College Council during the seven years that I have been 
a member of that body, I have, I believe, only been absent once. My 
colleagues could render a similar account of their stewardship. We have 
fulfilled our duties carefully and patiently, and have earnestly tried to 
mature a system of study adapted for Canada ; neither taking Oxford, 
nor Dublin, nor the Scottish Universities, nor the Queen's University of 
Ireland, as our sole model ; but trying to get from each what was spe- 
cially fitted for the requirements of this new country, which occupies a 
position different from all. 



The Matriculation Examinations. 



We have also turned our attention to the condition of the Grammar 
Schools. And no fact is more obvious, or commends itself more clearly 
to your common sense, than this, that — if the University and College 
are to be for the benefit of the people at large — there can be no gap or 
interval between the Grammar Schools and the University. The Gram- 
mar Schools train the youth up to the point at which the University 
receives them, and are we to adopt a standard for matriculation placed 
at a point which these Grammar Schools cannot reach 1 I hold in my 
hand the original matriculation examination of the University of Toronto, 



60 

inherited from the old King's College,* which, I do not hesitate to say, 
if persisted in by us, would have been the most solemn farce educated 
men ever attempted to perpetrate in a new country. It actually requires 
a youth at his examination for admission to the University to have read 
Homer's Illiad, Xenophon, Lucian, Virgil, Ovid, and, if he competed for 
a scholarship, to have read more of Homer, of the Illiad and Odyssey 
both. Horace's Odes, Yirgil's iEnied, Ovid's Fasti, Lucian's Menippus 
— to have gone in fact through nearly all the chief classics of ancient 
times. That is a higher requirement than a man can take his degree 
not only in any University in Scotland, but in Oxford or Cambridge, or 
in the University of London, which has been expressly assigned by the 
Legislature as our model ; and yet we are arraigned before you on the 
grave charge of venturing to depart from that extravagant model as the 
sole entrance examination of the University. J 

In truth, gentlemen, if our examinations were to be strict, and bona 
fide, as we had resolved they should, we might just as well have literally 
nailed up the University door. When old King's College was practically 
confined to a small and exclusive class, and when Upper Canada College 
had its seventh form where youths were retained to then seventeenth or 
eighteenth year, and then transferred, with a College bursary or exhibi- 
tion, to the higher institution, such a state of things was possible enough ; 
and if it is desired that the old monopoly shall be restored, let us be in- 
formed of it, and our course will be an easy one. But meanwhile our 
decision has been, that if our true aim is to elevate the education of the 
whole province, we must provide a matriculation adapted to the specific 
capacity of the grammar schools. Any other system, while pretending to 
elevate education, must either have restricted its whole advantages to a 
favoured and wealthy few ; or been a mere deceptive paper programme. 
We have therefore adapted our entrance examination to the schools of 
the country ; and you heard yesterday the clear testimony of the Principal 
of Queen's College in favour of the course we have pursued ; Dr. Cook 
having shown there that practical sense, and that appreciation of the true 
aspects of a collegiate system, designed, not for a class, but for the people 



Matriculation : — Greek and Latin languages, in 1847 : 

Horace, Odes, B. I. 



f Homer, Iliad, B. I. 

Homer, Odyssey, B. IX. 
f Xenopnon, Anabasis. B. I. 
f Lucian, Vita, Charon, and Timon. 
+ Virgil, Mneid, B. II. 



t Sallust, Bellum Catilinariuni. 
t Ovid, Fasti, B. I. 

Translation into Latin verse, 
f Translation into Latin prose. 



f The subjects marked thus are necessary for passing. 

£"E. A. Merredith, M.A., of Trinity College, Dublin, examined:— 

Ques. 522.— Did you obtain honors in that University 1 

Ans. — Yes, I obtained honors in the University at almost all the examinations of the 
undergraduate course, both in classics and mathematics, also a scholarship in classics, and 
a medal in science at the degree examination, besides some other honors. 

Ques. 524. —Have you compared the matriculation examination of the University ot 
Toronto with those prescribed in other universities, and what is your opinion of their 
comparative standards ] 

Ans. — I have compared it with the matriculation examinations at Cambridge, London, 
Cork, Belfast and Dublin. It seems to me to be about equal to Cambridge, rather 
greater than London, greater than Cork, less than Belfast, and less than Dublin." 

It thus appears that, instead of lowering the standard, the present matriculation exami* 
nation is higher than that of the University named in the act, viz., London. 



* 

at large, which I should have expected from a gentleman educated in a 
Scottish University.* 

The System of Options. 

With regard to options, our aim has been in like manner to devise such 
a course of study as would prove an effective source not only of intellectual 
culture, but would prepare the youth of Canada for the practical duties 
of life. The old classical course of Oxford is not fitted to accomplish that 
object. Notwithstanding the distinguished names to be found among 
the graduates of that University to which the sons of England's nobles 
almost exclusively resort — the majority of Oxford-trained students whom 
I have seen do not strike me as men whose University training seems to 
have had practical business and duties in view. Not a few of them rather 
seem like men who have just emerged from the cloister, and are far from 
being at home in the ordinary business of life. We therefore adopted a 
plan which the Commissioners of Oxford University have recommended 
for the improvement of that very institution ; and some credit may be 
claimed for the men of your own Canadian University, that they have 
carried into practice what the wisest men connected with Oxford Univer- 
sity are only yet recommending. They recommend that the young men 
attending Oxford shall at a certain point take options, under the advice 
of their tutors. That is precisely what our young men do. A youth 
enters our College and goes through the first two years of the course. 
He then comes to the President, or one of the Professors, for advice as to 
what options he shall take. The matter is very simply dealt with. He 
is asked what is your object in life? If you intend to be a medical man 
drop your Greek and Latin and go on with the Natural Sciences and 
Modern Languages, for every educated man in this country, and especially 
every medical man, ought to know at least French — which here is a 
spoken language — and German also. If the young man intends to become 
a theological student, to qualify himself for entering the ministry of any 
of our churches, then we say go on with your classics, your moral science, 
your mental philosophy. If he proposes to become a Grammar school 
teacher, we say — go on with your classics and mathematics, t If a Land 
Surveyor — -devote your chief attention to your mathematics, geology, and 

* The Rev. Dr. Cook, Principal of Queen's College, stated explicitly before tlie Com- 
mittee his concurrence with Mr. Langton, in his views as to the proper matriculation 
examinations for the University, and the wise changes that had been made on the books 
required : — 

Ques. 292. — On the 13th instant you were requested to put in writing some remarks 
upon the subject of matriculation. Have you done sol and if you have, please to put 
them in. 

Ans. — I do not think the mere list of books which any college or university publishes as 
the subject of examination before admitting young men, gives any correct idea of the 
mental attainments of those who are admitted ; that can only be learned from the actual 
examination, which might be very slight with a long list, and very thorough with a small 
one. I think one advantage of having all the colleges of the country affiliated under the 
University, would be to establish a uniform standard of attainment. That standard 
would have to be fixed with a reasonable regard to the state of grammar school education in 
the province, and raised from time to time as that education admitted, and with a view of 
stimulating both teacher's and scholars over the country to greater exertion. 

t A very unfair use has been made of a special exceptional case provided in the system 
of options, so as to misrepresent the whole. The principle laid down is that no undergra- 
duate shall exercise any options, or, in other words, be permitted to select any portions of 
the University course, as specially adapted to his future aim in life, till the end of the 



62 

mineralogy. If a farmer 1 — -and I hope that is a class of students which 
will be found to multiply every year, for I trust we are to educate not 
merely professional men, but the youth of Canada generally ; and men 
will make all the better farmers and merchants and tradesmen for having 
highly cultivated minds — if a farmer, we say, go on with Modern Lan- 
guages, and still more with Natural Sciences, which will be of practical 
use to you in all the future duties of life. Is there not common sense in 
that 1 ? Is not that the most rational system for Canada, whatever may 
be the proper system for Oxford and Cambridge — a system which the 
Chief Superintendent of Education seems disposed to dictate to us and 
to you % 

In reference to the whole system of options, I am surprised that the 
gentlemen who advocate the interests of Victoria and Queen's Colleges 
fail to perceive that, so far from involving any injustice to affiliated col- 
leges with an inferior staff to University College, they are the veiy means 
of placing all on an equality. Under the University system of options, 
a college with only mathematical, classical, and mental philosophy chairs, 
may send its men to compete for first class honors, and to carry off the 
classical or mathematical scnolarships, against the best of University 
College students with all their advantages of Modern Languages and 
Natural Sciences, which are unavailable in these special competitions. 
Permit me to add that no opinion is more unfounded than that winch 
supposes that the Professors of University College desire any monopoly 
of the University of Toronto, its examinatorships, scholarships, or other 
privileges. The very article referred to by Dr. Pyerson was written with 
the earnest desire to bring about a union of Canadian Colleges under one 
University — as I venture to hope may be perceived by any candid reader 
who will puruse it as a whole, and not in imperfect and detached extracts. 

Members of the Seriate. 

But it is a singularly one sided view of the case for the advocates of 
the interests of Victoria College to protest indignantly at certain Profes- 
sors of University College — four in all — being admitted to the Senate of 
the University to which their College is attached, and for which alone it 
can train its students, while there were sitting on that same board the 
members of another, and independent University which disclaimed all 
collegiate relation to it. Before University College had more than its 
President on the Senate, there sat on that Board the Pev. Mr. Nelles, 
Principal of Victoria College, the Pev. Dr. Pyerson, a member of the 
College Board, and Dr. Barrett — who it has been found convenient to 
represent as a teacher in Upper Canada College — but who, it is well 
known, never had a seat at the Senate in any other capacity than as 
President of Dr. Bolph's or the Toronto School of Medicine ; and who, as 

second year. The only exception to this is in the case of a student who achieves the rank 
of first class in honors in both Greek and Latin, in mathematics, or in both modern lan- 
guages and natural sciences. In mathematics, however, this is limited ; and, by a special 
provision, applied mathematics is imperative on all in the second year. Again, it is ob- 
vious that no man taking first class honors in classics, is likely to drop the very subjects in 
which he is pre-eminent. In reality, the records of the University show that, from 1855 
to the present time, only eleven in all have been in a position to avail themselves of this 
option ; and of these only four have actually dropped classics ; that is less than one each 
year. Yet it is by taking advantage of this rare exceptional case, and representing it as 
the rule, that the system of options has been so grossly misrepresented. 



63 

such, took his seat for the first time to represent the Medical Faculty of 
Victoria College at the meetings of the University of Toronto, while its 
students were systematically prevented from graduating there. 

It may sound very plausible to those who know nothing about the facts 
of the case to talk of the injustice of four Professors sitting on a Board num- 
bering forty-three members, which had the entire control of their courses 
of teaching and system of study. Let it be remembered, however, that 
until they were added to it, the sederunts of the Senate frequently pre- 
sented the anomally of a University and College controlled in all their 
arrangements by those who systematically withheld, not only the students 
of Cobourg, but the medical students of Toronto, from the very University 
over which they exercised so much control. Had Victoria, Queen's, or 
Trinity College actually recognised the University as such, while main- 
taining a thorough independence as separate Colleges, the Senate would 
never have been driven to the necessity of giving so large a share in the 
oversight of the University examinations to Professors of University 
College ; although, as I shall hereafter show, the amourft of this share 
has been greatly exaggerated. If, as seems inevitable in the present con- 
dition of Canada, Professors must be appointed examiners, they would 
have been selected equally from all the colleges ; but it is a proposition 
which no reasonable man could entertain, that the Professors of such 
Colleges should — as they now do — examine their own students, confer 
degrees on them by right of their own university powers, and even 
establish a faculty at the seat of the University of Toronto, so as to confer 
the degrees of Victoria College on Toronto students — and yet that they 
should also be the governors and examiners, or electors of the examiners, 
of the University they disown. 

Had the various denominational Colleges acted up to the idea implied 
by the University of London, with its numerous and varied privately 
endowed Colleges, as the model of the Canadian Provincial University, 
the system could easily have been worked so as to satisfy all as to thorough 
impartiality in the constitution of the Senate, the appointment of exam- 
iners, and the distribution of honors and prizes. But, on the contrary, 
the Provost of Trinity refused to take his seat on the Senate ; the 
Principal of Queen's practically adopted the same course ; and the 
Principal of Victoria — while sharing in the government of the University, 
and fixing the course of studies of the College — only lent the aid of his 
wisdom and experience, but refused all practical co-operation. Never- 
theless, the Senate, in its anxious desire to secure a thoroughly impartial 
system of examinations, has, in spite of those obstacles, appointed Pro- 
fessors of both. Victoria and Queen's Colleges as its examiners, as it has 
selected others wherever they could be found at once competent and 
impartial. 

No Monopoly Desired. 

Again, let me say for myself and my colleagues in University College, 
we have no desire to monopolize the endowments of the Provincial 
University. Let the just and proper costs of maintaining the College in 
a state of efficiency be properly ascertained, with some adequate regard 
to future requirements, and, whatever be the legitimate objects on which 
to expend the surplus funds, the College can advance no claim to them. 



64 

* 

The statements made to you with regard to the cost of our College repre- 
sent it as nearly double what it actually is. But as foi the surplus, it is 
for the Legislature to determine what shall be done with it. I should 
be delighted to see an adequate specific endowment set apart for us, in 
such a way that, if we exceeded the appropriation, we should make up 
the difference out of our own salaries ; but also with the proviso that, if 
we were able to retrench, we should have liberty to expend the balance 
in improving the efficiency of the institution. At present, it is provided 
that, if we save any money, it is only that thereby it may pass away for 
ever from the funds of the Institution to which we belong. We are 
men, and that must be an unwise system to place us under which provides 
that the more we economise, the more we lose. 

Shall %ve revive State-Church Colleges ? 

But it does not follow, because we say we have no desire to ask a 
dollar more than is absolutely necessary for our fair and legitimate expen- 
diture — it does not necessarily follow that the University Act of 1853 
designed, or that wise policy requires, that the surplus should be expended 
on denominational colleges. In the memorial presented on behalf of the 
Wesleyan Methodist Conference to the Legislative Assembly, praying for 
an investigation into the manner in which the University Act has been 
administered, the memorialists declare their entire approval of our Cana- 
dian "National School System." Nevertheless, they affirm that "the 
same considerations of fitness, economy, and patriotism which justify the 
State in co-operating with each school municipality to support a day 
school, require it to co-operate with each religious persuasion, according 
to its own educational works, to support a college. The experience of all 
Protestant countries shows that it is, and has been as much the province 
of a religious persuasion to establish a college, as it is for a school muni- 
cipality to establish a day school ; and the same experience shows that 
while pastoral and parental care can be exercised for the religious instruc- 
tion of children residing at home and attending a day school, that care 
cannot be exercised over youth residing away from home, and pursuing 
their higher education except in a college where the pastoral and parental 
care can be daily combined." 

That the experience of all Protestant countries is entirely misrepre- 
sented in the above statement, I think might almost be appealed to the 
common sense interpretation of it. What is the relation between school 
municipalities and religious persuasions 1 Is there any relation between 
the superior body, a religious persuasion, and the inferior body, a school 
municipality 1 The relation between a denominational body, such as the 
Wesleyan Methodists, the United Presbyterians, the Church of England, 
or the Church of Scotland, and an inferior body, is the relation between 
that denomination and its various congregations. And moreover that is 
the very principle which the Protestant and Roman Catholic advocates of 
Separate Schools are maintaining. We have in Toronto, besides Univer- 
sity College, Trinity College, which will give a degree to no man who 
does not declare himself a member of the Church of England ; and different 
congregations of that body, Holy Trinity, St. James's and St. George's, 
are maintaining denominational schools, and are trying, under the guidance 
of able legal advisers, to prove that they have a right to a Separate School 



65 

System ; and such is truly the logical following out of the argument pro- 
posed in the memorial of the Wesleyan Conference. But there is in 
reality no relation between a religious denomination and a municipality. 
The analogy of a municipality with its Common and Grammar Schools 
carries us at once to a Provincial University as the superior body. 

British University Reforms. 

But let me turn to another view of the case in relation to the supposed 
teachings of the modern experience of protestant countries. Let me refer 
to the recent University reforms at home. An appeal to the examples of 
Oxford and Cambridge on those points, is out of place in the present 
enquiry — if for no other reason — on this ground, that so far are these 
from being educational institutions, open to the people at large, they have 
been until recently exclusively, and are still to a great extent, limited to 
one favoured denomination,* while they are accessible to the wealthy 
alone — the lowest estimated cost for a student during the academic year 
being $750. Nevertheless, although they are still recognised appendages 
of the Church of England, the whole tendency of recent changes has been 
towards the removal of their denominational features, and their restora- 
tion to the nation at large, without distinction of sect or party. 

* In discussing this question of Tests, the all important distinction between tests for 
Teacfiers, and tests for Students was evaded. Dr. Ryerson quotes a statute abolishing the 
B. A. test at Oxford, and then triumphantly exclaims : (Evidence, p. 151.) 

" So, Sir, even at Oxford itself, that Alma Mater of the ' Relics of the dark ages,' this 
test has been abolished. In the Scottish Universities, while the test has been done away 
with too, the Church of Scotland has a Theological Faculty just as the Church of England 
has Theological Professors at Oxford." 

This reference to " the Test/' as though the two things were analagous, must be ascribed 
either to gross ignorance or wilful misrepresentation. In the Scottish Universities, Tests 
for Professors have been recently abolished. No Tests for Students have existed there for 
generations. But Dr. Ryerson does not seem to be at all aware of the significance of 
abolishing the Oxford Students' Test at the preliminary B. A. Degree, or to know that the 
Oxford M. A. is still obliged to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles, and the three articles 
of the 36th Canon of the Church of England. Hence, though a Non-Conformist may take 
his B. A. Degree, he does not thereby acquire the privileges of a Graduate. He cannot be 
a Member of Convocation ; neither can he be admitted to any office for which the B. A. 
degree formerly qualified, without subscription of the Articles. Moreover, at Oxford, even 
now, only persons '''extra ecclesiam Anglicanam," can be exempted by a certificate from 
the head of their College, from examination in the Thirty-Nine Articles, of course with the 
liability to rejection if their answers are not satisfactory. But the matter is best illustrated 
by facts. Sir Culling Eardley, after passing all requisite examinations, left Oxford in 
1827, without graduating, in consequence of conscientious scruples about signing the 
Thirty -nine Articles. After tha passing of the recent act, he applied for his Degree, and 
was, by the present Master of Oriel, referred to the statutes, which recognise no scruples 
of conscience in members of the Church. Nor did he obtain his Degree ! 

But besides this direct enforcement of tests, there are other means at Oxford and else- 
where, quite as effective as prescribed articles or creeds. It was attempted to be shown, 
by the absence of any Unde '-graduate Test, at Trinity College, Toronto, that denomina- 
tional Colleges are not practically sectarian. But tlie Rev. Provost Whitaker stated the 
true bearings of the case with honourable candour ; as in the reply to the following 
question : 

Ques. — 360. " At the present moment, there is no test nor other impediment to a student 
not a member of the Church of Kngland. going through the whole course of study at 
Trinity College up to the period of taking his B. A. Degree, except that, if it be an impe- 
diment, of attending Chapel ] 

Ans. — " None, bat he must attend chapel and the lectures on the Catechism, and Articles 
of the Church of England." 

Such, therefore, are the educational reforms recommended for Upper Canada by its 
Chief Superintendent, as a beneficial substitute for our present unsectarian and truly 
Provincial Grammar School, College, and University system. 



66 

In Scotland, however, where the Universities are strictly people's 
colleges, adapted to the educational wants, and to the pecuniary means of 
the great mass of the community, recent proceedings furnish the best 
illustration of " the experience of Protestant countries," in reference to 
its being the " supposed province of a religious persuasion to establish a 
College." The Scottish Presbyterian Church being the legally recognised 
religious persuasion of that country, its Church Courts exercised the 
denominational oversight over the colleges of the country ; and no Pro- 
fessor could be inducted into a Chair without first signing the Westminster 
Confession of Faith. The consequence was, that during the greater part 
of the present century the denominational restrictions thus imposed on 
Professors came to be recognised as the greatest of educational grievances, 
and a serious bar to the filling of University chairs with the men best 
qualified for the various branches of secular education. But an important 
religious revolution took place in Scotland within the last quarter of a 
century, by the disruption between the Scottish Established Church, and 
that large body of conscientious non-conformists, who separated from it on 
important questions, not of doctrine, but of discipline and relation to the 
State ; and that body, the Free Church, showed their practical zeal and 
earnestness by raising ,£30,000, with which they erected the New College, 
Edinburgh, a beautiful and ornate building — designed to be not a mere 
theological, but a complete collegiate institution for secular training. 
Chairs of natural history, logic, metaphysics, and moral philosophy, were 
filled by able men, for whom salaries were provided on a more liberal 
scale than those now paid to the Professors of University College, Toronto ; 
— a chair of chemistry was also in contemplation ; and a complete organisa- 
tion was thus provided for the permanent establishment of a rival denomi- 
national college. Fortunately for Scotland, at this stage of her University 
system, the Act was passed which, by abolishing all religious tests for secular 
chairs, entirely deprived them of their denominational character. In the 
Scottish universities as now constituted, the Theological Faculty exists as 
a part of the Established Church ; but in the Faculties of Art, Law, and 
Medicine, every trace of denominational oversight has been removed. 
And what is the result 1 How did the judgment and discretion of 
Protestantism in Scotland pronounce on the system ? The result has 
been that the New College, Edinburgh, has ceased to be more than a 
Theological College for the clergy of its own church. The chairs of 
Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics, and Natural History, successively became 
vacant, and were not filled up ; the students of that denomination, as of 
all other Scottish denominations, receive all their secular education in the 
common halls of the University of Edinburgh ; and it is regarded by 
every layman in Scotland, be he Churchman or Dissenter, as one of the 
greatest blessings of the Scottish University system, that men, whatever 
be their opinions, and those qualifying to be clergymen, for whatever 
church intended, are trained in the same university halls, under the same 
rule ; so that those who are to mix afterwards in the various walks of 
life, in the discharge of its great and practical duties shall not inherit 
little sectional prejudices, which under the best denominational system 
men must acquire, when trained exclusively among those of their own 
peculiar opinions.* But no one, familiar with Scotland, will say that men 

* In 1828, a series of letters was published by the Rev. Dr. Ryerson. addressed to the 
Hon. and Rev. Dr. Strachan. One of these letters, VIII., is devoted to The University . 



«7 

under that training grow up indifferent as to denominational views, or 
less earnest and sincere in their religious opinions, or that they lapse into 
any lukewarm indifference which sacrifices faith and conscience ; but, on 
the contrary, morality and religion flourish best under that very non- 
denominational system. 

The last relic of the denominational university system of Scotland, in 
connexion with her secular education, has been swept away during the 
past year, by the Act which throws the Principalships of the Universities 
open to laymen, without respect to their denominational views or religious 
opinions. Now, accordingly, in the Scottish Universities, as in our 
Canadian Provincial College, "no religious tests or professions of religious 
faith are required of any professor or lecturer, nor are any religious 
observances, according to the forms of any particular religious denomina- 
tion, imposed on them." The precise words of the Toronto University 
Act would, in fact, equally apply to the Faculties of Arts, Law, and 
Medicine, in the Scottish Universities. Thus all denominational over- 
sight- and control have been withdrawn from them. 

Is Canada to Return to the worn-out System of Medieval Europe ? 

Yet what has been abandoned there, your Superintendent of Education 
urges you to perpetuate here, along with the Acts and Opponencies, the 
Optimes and Responsions inherited from medieval centuries by Oxford 
and Cambridge. In Great Britain most of the older educational institu- 
tions were founded before it was a Protestant country, and all of them in 
connexion with an established Church. The exclusive principles on 
which such were administered, in England especially, compelled the con- 
scientious nonconformists to establish schools and colleges of their own ; 
not because they objected to the national Universities, but because they 
were forcibly excluded from them. But it surely would be a strange in- 
fatuation for a new country like Canada, altogether free from that element 
which now shackles and complicates every effort in Great Britain for the 
development of a truly national system of public instruction, to transplant 

and the terms in which Oxford and Cambridge are there condemned as utterly unfit to be 
the models for Canada contrast strangely with their laudation now, as the perfection of all 
examplars. An extract or two may be of use to throw light on the singular changes that 
have since taken place : 

" So bound up in bigotry were the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and so opposed 
to evangelical piety, that Locke, that great light of his day, and benefactor of the literary 
and Christian world, was expelled from their priest-governed halls ; and the memorable 
John Wesley, together with several others, equally eminent for their holy deportment, 
shared the same fate, for singing hymns, reading and expounding the scriptures in private 
houses." 

A Review article is then quoted with entire approval, as stating, " without the least 
fear of contradiction, that there is absolutely no religion taught, and no attention to its 
observances inculcated," notwithstanding the daily attendance at chapel, and other pro- 
visions for their own denomination at Oxford and Cambridge. 

But the following double quotation is much more comprehensive in its bearings. 
Addressing the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Strachan, he proceeds : 

" You say, — ' In Edinburgh, Episcopalian youth go to the University for science and 
literature, but for religious instruction they attend Dr. Walker, an eminent divine belong- 
ing to the Episcopal Church. ' Why may not Episcopalian, as well as the youth of other 
denominations, be instructed after a similar arrangement in Canada!" — Dr. Ryer son's Let- 
ters, p. 40. 

Whence the marvellous change of sentiments since the above pertinent question was 
asked 1 



6$ 

to its free soil the rival sectarian educational institutions which are only 
defensible by reason of the injustice that closed the halls of Oxford and 
Cambridge against all but the adherents of one favoured church. 

But the most recent action in England has been to a great extent in the 
strictly non-denominational direction ; and since the establishment of the 
University of London on a truly liberal and national basis, colleges have 
been founded and liberally endowed, entirely independent of denominational 
control or supervision, such as those of Hull, Wakefield, Cheltenham 
and Manchester. University College, London, had already been estab- 
lished by private enterprise, before the State provided the requisite Uni- 
versity organisation. But that done, the separate colleges, whether 
denominational or otherwise, were left in Britain to rely for their support 
on the liberality of a wealthy country. In Ireland, however, it was 
otherwise ; for there, as in Canada, the private wealth was wanting, and 
the State founded and endowed both the Colleges and the University, and 
placed their honors and advantages alike free to all. 

Such institutions the State may justly endow with public funds, and 
it is for the members of a free community for whom such inestimable 
advantages are secured, to place such national institutions under the control 
of a governing Board, which shall adequately represent the wishes and 
desires of a Christian people in relation to all the essential non-sectarian 
questions which pertain to the discipline and training of the rising gene- 
ration. But in a free country like ours, where the separation between 
Church and State is absolute, the existence of a Church Institution, sup- 
ported by the State, is an incongruity ; the supervision of it by the State 
is an impossibility. 

Denominational Colleges and their Tests. 

The tendencies suggested by modern experience in relation to national 
Universities and superior education, are abundantly illustrated by the 
new Universities and Colleges of England and Ireland ; the removal of 
all denominational restrictions from the faculties of arts, law, and medi- 
cine, in the Scottish Universities ; and the throwing open to all denomi- 
nations the privileges of Oxford and Cambridge. It is manifestly, there- 
fore, totally at variance with facts to say that "the experience of all 
Protestant countries shows that it is, and has been, as much the province 
of a religious persuasion to establish a College, as it is for a School muni- 
cipality to establish a school," unless by such statement a mere denomina- 
tional theological institution is meant. On the contrary, the experience 
of Canada sufficiently illustrates how " religious persuasions," by going 
out of their province, and interfering with secular education, may retard 
the development of a well organised system for a whole generation. 

That Queen's College, Canada, is purely the educational institution of 
the denomination under whose control it exists, is shown by the report 
presented to the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada, on the 
25th of May last; which, if reported correctly in the public prints, stated 
the number of students in attendance as eleven in theology, and fifty- three 
in arts ; but added : "In all, forty-Jive are studying for the Ministry" 

Credit has been repeatedly claimed of late for Victoria College, that it 
has no tests, but such a statement is a mere play upon words. What real 
difference is there between requiring that a Professor shall sign the pre- 



scribed creed of a Church — be it the Thirty-nine Articles, or the West- 
minister Confession of Faith — or that he shall satisfy the Wesleyan 
Conference, or other Ecclesiastical Court '? In reality, the latter is the 
more stringent of the two. 

I speak on this subject feelingly, for I have reason to feel strongly upon 
it. I had a brother once, a man of high personal character and blame- 
less life, admitted to be one eminently distinguished among the scientific 
men of his native land — and from among whom he has recently passed 
away, mourned with an earnestness of public grief not often manifested 
even for Scotland's most gifted sons — yet that man was long shut out 
from honors iustly his due, and many students were deprived of his 
instructions in his favourite science, because he was too conscientious to 
make falsely or carelessly a declaration of faith in the prescribed tests of 
the dominant Church. It was not because he was indifferent to religion 
that he was thus excluded, for no more earnest Christian was to be found 
among British scientific men ; and when at length better times came, and 
such antiquated absurdities of the dark ages were swept away by the 
abolition of all religious tests in the Scottish Universities, he was appointed 
to a chair in his own University of Edinburgh ; and was acknowledged 
there, not oidy as one of the most distinguished men of science, but as one 
of the most upright and conscientious Christian men of his day. 

But, again, it is affirmed that Victoria College is not sectarian, but pro- 
vincial, because, it is said, the President of the Executive Council, the 
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, and other high official dignitaries 
are named on the College Board. Might it not be well to ascertain how 
often they are named on its sederunts t I put the question to to the Rev. 
Mr. Ormiston, formerly a Professor of Victoria College, and his answer 
was that during the years he sat on its board he never saw one of them, 
or heard of their being summoned to its meetings. For any practical pur- 
pose, therefore, the Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Lord High Chan- 
cellor of England might as well be named for the duty. But meanwhile, 
this is unquestionable, that the Victoria College Board is one of the Com- 
mittees annually appointed by the Wesleyan Methodist Conference, and 
that no man can be appointed to one of its Chairs who does not satisfy 
the requirements of the Conference, or its appointed delegates ; nor can 
any doubt exist that the whole management is in the hands of the Wes- 
leyan denomination, — a Christian body justly held in admiration for its 
earnest zeal and self-denying missionary labours ; but not therefore to be 
selected from among other denominations for State patronage, or educa- 
tional oversight, in a country where all connexion between Church and 
State has been utterly abolished. 

Victoria College. 

In Victoria College there is, of course, no test for students- It is only 
too well known, that — not in Methodist Colleges only, but also in Roman 
Catholic Colleges — all are welcome who are prepared to submit to their 
teaching. But from the return made to Parliament in 1856, the denomi- 
national statistics present the significant figures relative to the matricu- 
lated students of Victoria College of twenty-eight Wesleyan Methodists 
to three Presbyterians, one Church of England, and one Baptist. Or, 
again, taking the whole pupils in the institution, there were only 39 be 



70 

longing to other denominations, including children at the preparatory 
school, while 190 were Wesleyan Methodists. It is stated in the Confer- 
ence Memorial that no aid is asked "towards the support of any Theo- 
logical School or Theological Chair in Victoria College ;" and Mr. Nelles, 
in answer to the question, " Is there any Theological Chair, or Divinity 
students in Victoria College?" replies: "Neither. We have students 
attending the College who are preparing for the ministry, but are not 
pursuing theological studies, but general studies ; and are not known in 
the College as Divinity students, but as general students. They receive 
no allowance or consideration from the funds in any shape whatever." It 
appears, however, from the 7th of the Miscellaneous Resolutions adopted 
by the Wesleyan Conference at its last meeting, that ' ' when preachers on 
trial are allowed to attend Victoria College for two years during their 
probation, the two years shall be counted but as one year in their proba- 
tion." Again, in answer to the thirteenth question: — "How are the 
ministers and preachers stationed for the ensuing year ?" " Under-grad- 
uates and students" to the number of twenty, are named in the "Cobourg 
District" as at Victoria College. In the previous year, 1858, they num- 
bered seventeen ; and in the report furnished by the President of Vic- 
toria College to the Conference in the same year, he remarks : "Judging 
from present indications, the College is destined to furnish very valuable 
accessions to the Christian Ministry, and the attention of the Conference 
and the Church is earnestly invited to this important result, as a reason 
for more ardent and united exertions in behalf of the Institution.'' It is 
obvious, therefore, that whatever difference may be entertained as to the 
designation of "preachers on trial during their probation" at Victoria 
College, that is the Wesleyan denominational college. It supplies for the 
Wesleyan Methodist Church the same purposes as Queen's College does 
for the Presbyterian Church of Canada. Accordingly, in the same report 
of the Principal of Victoria College to the Wesleyan Conference, Mr. 
Nelles, says : "It is necessary to show that our college is a connexional 
necessity — that it is an essential part of our machinery as a Church — that 
without it we shall either lose our youth, or retain them in a state of 
mental and social inferiority — that without it our ministers will suffer 
in numbers and efficiency — that without it in fine, we shall be unequal 
to the great work God has assigned us in Christianising this extensive 
country." 

Sectarian or Denominational ? 



We may dispute about the meaning of such terms as sectarian and 
denominational, but if a college is a "connexional necessity," and if the 
number of ministers of the denomination fall off if that college be not 
supported, it matters little by what convenient name you may agree to 
designate it. But when you remember that this college is connected with 
one of the most influential and most earnest religious communities in the 
country, whose zeal in sustaining missions and a numerous body of cler- 
gymen, and in all the onerous duties of a Christian Church, is unsurpassed 
by any denomination in the Province, and yet that this college cannot 
obtain the means of support, — it proves that, while some leaders of the 
body, or some officials of the college, may regard it as a connexional 



71 

necessity, the people at large are of a different opinion ; and, as is shown 
even by the presence of their sons at University College in annually in- 
creasing numbers, they are perfectly satisfied with our Provincial colle- 
giate system. The efforts of the Conference to uphold the College, for 
the purpose of maintaining the efficiency of their denomination, may be 
highly laudable, in a strictly denominational point of view, and worthy of 
praise when effected by the denomination to be thus benefitted. But it 
cannot be the function of the State to prevent the Wesleyan Church los- 
ing its youth as church members, any more than to assist it in other reli- 
gious and missionary work ; unless it is also prepared to re-assert the 
principle it has disavowed, in the abolition of all State provision for reli- 
gion in Upper Canada. 



Is our Provincial School System to be abolished? 



Again, returning to the consideration of the statements already quoted 
from the memorial of the Wesleyan Conference, a complete fallacy is in- 
volved in the attempt to apply certain characteristics of our Common 
Schools to the whole provincial system of education. It is .true that our 
Common Schools, being easily multiplied in every district, are mere day 
schools ; so that the attendance there does not deprive the pupils of daily 
parental or pastoral care and religious instruction ; but such is not, and 
never can be the case, with the Grammar Schools, the Provincial Normal 
School, or the Model Grammar School. In order to attend each of these, 
pupils necessarily leave their parents' homes, and are placed, some of them 
under a system greatly less conductive to strict moral and religious over- 
sight, than that which is secured by the system of University College, as 
applied to its resident students. 

In the Model Grammar School, for example, established under the au- 
thority of the Chief Superintendent of Education at Toronto, it is 
expressly provided that pupils shall be received from every part of the 
Province ; and thus necessarily be removed from daily parental and pas- 
toral instruction and oversight. Yet its establishment and supervision 
are equally independent of any religious persuasion ; and it is placed un- 
der the authority of the Council of Public Instruction, a public board con- 
stituted on nearly the same principle as* the Senate of Toronto University. 
The same remarks equally apply to the Normal School, to which is en- 
trusted the all important function of training teachers for the whole Com- 
mon Schools of the Province ; nevertheless no difficulty appears to have 
arisen hitherto from the adoption, in those institutions, of one national 
system instead of a denominational and necessarily sectarian one. But if 
the principle now affirmed, is to be carried out, instead of the Province 
maintaining at a reasonable expense, one efficient Model Grammar School, 
Normal School, and College ; which are abundantly sufficient to meet 
the present demand for the departments of higher education embraced by 
them, it must multiply such institutions in the same ratio as all denomi- 
national colleges, "now established or which may be established in Upper 
Canada ;" or even in each city of Upper Canada. Or, are we to be seri- 
ously told that so long as the youth of Canada are under the care of Dr. 
Byerson, no matter what the system may be, all is religious and moral ; 



72 

but with the same system in the hands of the provincial professors, all is 
godless and naught.* 

The course pursued by the British Parliament in all recent reforms of 
higher education, as exemplified, not only by the new Scottish Universi- 
ties Act, but also by the establishment of the Queen's University in Ire- 
land, and the London University in England — abundantly proves how 
thoroughly British Statesmen are alive to the importance of all the mem- 
bers of a free community receiving their secular education in national, ra- 
ther than in denominational institutions, and being thereby trained to 
co-operate in all the great public duties that devolve on a free people. — 
The Queen's University in Ireland is designed to extend the same advan- 
tages of University degrees and honors to students of all denominations, 
as is done by Toronto University j but the public endowment is entirely 
devoted to the national, non-denominational Queen's Colleges, founded on 
precisely the same principle as our Provincial University College, at To- 
ronto. In England also, the London University confers degrees and uni- 
versity honors on students presenting themselves at its examinations, 
from Episcopalian, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Wesleyan Methodist, 
Congregationalist, Baptist, and other denominational colleges ; but these 
neither receive nor claim any other share of the university funds, except- 
ing the common right enjoyed, not only by all their students, but by every 
one possessed of the requisite knowledge wheresoever acquired, to com- 
pete for the University Scholarships. In these respects, therefore, the 
University of Toronto fully carries out the plan adopted by London Uni- 
versity, and also by the Queen's University of Ireland. It also fulfils 
the purposes of its institution as set forth in the preamble of the Act, in 
placing within the reach of every youth of the Province, wheresoever edu- 
cated, " facilities for obtaining those scholastic honors and rewards, which 
their diligence and proficiency may deserve." 



* That our unsectarian Grammar School system must stand or fall with our Provincial 
and unsectarian University and College system, is abundantly apparent from the following 
remarks in Dr. Ryerson's reply (Evidence, p. 170,) so totally the reverse of his defence of 
the provincial system in the Educational Reports of earlier years. It is consistent, how- 
ever ; for if Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists and Roman Catholics are to divide 
among them the University endowment, on what principle is that of the grammar schools 
to be withheld ] 

"Granting that a defect exists in the grammar schools, that the primary education 
does not afford sufficient opportunities for religious instruction, is it not all the more 
imporLant, as every good parent must feel, that religious instruction should be afterwards 
given to that part of our youth who are to give character and heart to, and to be the 
leaders of our country? When our sons go away from immediate parental and pastoral 
authority, to train their minds for becoming the instructors and guides, if not the rulers 
of the province in future years, is it not most important that every possible care should be 
taken to give then every facility for obtaining religious instruction to form their charac- 
ter ! If there is a defect in our grammar scfiools, it is a reason for remedying it at our 
colleges." 

Again, the Principal of Queen's College lays down as the only security for education, 
(Ques. 86,) "having men enjoying the confidence of the religious bodies to which they be- 
long." And that this idea embraces not only our grammar,, but our common school 
system, will be illustrated by 'the following views of Baron Alderston, quoted by Dr. 
Cook, as best expressing his opinions in reference to the importance of the religious 
opinions of professors : — " They will add, 'give secular instruction in common.' I believe 
that to be impossible, because all learning and al 1 science may be so taught, and in fact 
must be so taught as to include in it some perversion or true teaching of religion. A n 
unbeliever teaching a boy arithmetic may insinuate that the doctrine of the Trinity in unity 
is not true, and geology may be taught so as to throw doubts on the Bible." 



73 

Examiners and Examinations. 

I must now return to a matter, personal not to myself, but to the whole 
staff of Professors whom I represent, and that is the question of Exami- 
ners and Examinations. No charge has been more strongly brought 
against us than that founded on the alleged partiality and unfairness of 
Professors examining their own students. At one aspect of this charge I 
have already glanced. That the principle, however questionable in the- 
ory, has many practical reasons in its favour, is proved by the fact that 
at McGill College, Trinity, Queen's, and Yictoria College, this practice 
is the rule. Dr. Cook and others have admitted that only Professors and 
practical teachers are qualified for the duty, and from among such our 
examiners are annually selectee} with anxious care, and placed in the ex- 
amination hall along with the Professors, with co-ordinate power, and 
full control of all examinations. Professors of Trinity, Yictoria, Queen's 
and Laval Colleges have all been nominated and invited to act as exami- 
ners ; and, instead of the Professors monopolising the appointments and 
examination fees, as has been most unjustly represented to you, out of 
twenty-six examiners in 1858, and twenty-two in 1859, nine only in each 
year were Professors of University College. 

To us, moreover, the complaints of the representatives of Victoria and 
Queen's Colleges, appear peculiarly unfair on this point. For, what are 
the real facts of the case % The Legislature appointed the Senate of To- 
ronto University, with power to establish scholarships and name exami- 
ners. University College adapted itself to the system, but no other 
college did so, or at least none having University powers. St. Michael's 
College, Knox's College, the United Presbyterian Institution, and the 
like, affiliated ; but Queen's, Yictoria, and Trinity all refused. The 
Provost of Trinity College declined to attend. The President of Queen's 
College took no notice of our invitations. The Principal of Yictoria Col- 
lege did indeed vote upon our plans and proceedings in arranging our 
course of study, but he never sent students to compete ; and Dr. Byerson 
himself was either the mover or seconder of the first resolution which not 
only appointed the Professors of University College as examiners, but 
named the very Professors who should act. If he saw it to be wrong in 
the abstract, he must at the same time have seen it to be an inevitable 
necessity. 

It has been charged also that we receive fees for examining our own 
students. Let me state in the first place that all our college examina- 
tions are quite independent of this. We do receive a fee of .£20 for 
conducting a totally distinct series of University examinations — and for 
this enormous fee I have read answers to nearly 10,000 questions, and 
these the answers, not of my own students exclusively, but of students 
also from all other colleges and schools, as well as of the candidates in 
the faculties of law and medicine, whose examinations all include subjects 
in arts. I may also add that among the examiners of the London Uni- 
versity, Professors of the colleges are named ; while in the Queen's 
University — which in relation to the peculiar circumstances of the coun- 
try, and the national non-denominational colleges connected with it, more 
nearly resembles our Provincial University and College — the Professors 
of the Queen's Colleges are systematically appointed members of the 
Examining Board. It is easy for Oxford and Cambridge, with a large 



74 

staff of wealthily endowed fellowships and numerous resident graduates, 
to place any restrictions they may please on the choice of examiners ; 
but the Queen's University has been compelled to resort to the Professors 
of the National Colleges, as those best qualified for the duties, until such 
time as a numerous class of well-trained graduates shall enable them to 
adopt a wider choice ; and in this respect the University of Toronto 
labours under still greater disadvantages, and a more absolute necessity 
for resorting to the same source for well qualified and experienced 
examiners. 

Had such Canadian Colleges as Trinity, Victoria and Queen's, become, 
in the true sense, Colleges of the University, instead of being, as they 
are, distinct and rival Universities, each with its own Examining Board, 
Convocation and body of graduates, the difficulty would have been easily 
solved, as already observed, by apportioning the appointments on the 
Examining Board equally among the Professors of all the colleges, as is 
done in the Examining Board of the Queen's University of Ireland. 
This, however, has hitherto been rendered impossible by the relations 
maintained by those colleges as independent Universities ; and I can 
only say, that if the Senate can find the requisite number of well qualified 
examiners, fit and willing to undertake the duty, I know that I speak 
the minds of my colleagues in University College, as well as my own 
wish, in saying that we shall heartily welcome the change as a most 
acceptable relief to ourselves, and a great improvement on the present 
system. If such appointments are made, it will then be seen by those 
who undertake the arts examinations, not only in the faculty of arts, but 
also of law and medicine, how entirely the statement is founded on error 
which represents the Professors of University College as receiving the 
examination fee for reading the papers of their own students.* 

Impartiality and Strictness of Examination. 

But meanwhile I must be permitted to avail myself of this occasion to 
assert in the most unqualified terms, that the examinations of the Uni- 
versity have been conducted with a strictness and impartiality that may 

* Examinations are conducted by the Professors of the College, in each, of their classes ; 
preparatory to the terminal examinations at Christmas and Easter, by which the College 
honoursand prizes are determined. These are totally independent of the subsequent 
University Examinations, at which candidates, not students of the College, present them- 
selves ; and from which all students of the College, not undergraduates in the University, 
are excluded. Dr. Kyerson, when commenting before the Committee on the College 
"Family Compact" as he styled it, remarked, 

" How far the interests ofthe College family have been consulted, I need not further 
remark ; and I have shown, in a statement to which neither Mr. Langton nor Dr. Wilson 
has ventured to refer, that the Professors of the College family at Toronto, have consulted 
their convenience, by giving themselves two months less work each year, and twelve hours 
less work each week of that short year, than have the Professors of Harvard College. "- 

To this Dr. McCaul has already replied by showing that the statements are totally 
unfounded. The session is frem four to five weeks longer than that required for the 
attendance of students at Oxford or Cambridge, and is the same length as that of Edinburgh. 
As to the comparison of University College with Harvard as to lectures, it is not only not 
the case that there are are twelve hours less work per week in University College, but the 
direct opposite is the truth, inasmuch as there are but 37 hours per week at" Harvard. 
whereas there are 39 at University College. An examination of the lectures attended by 
the students of each year, will also show a very considerable superiority in University Col- 
lege, Toronto ; besides which there are extra lectures and the examinations, occupying 
many additional hours. 



75 

challenge the severest scrutiny. Our printed returns tell of the number' 
of scholarships taken— and full use has been made of these. But no 
record meets the public eye to tell of the number rejected ; though no 
examination passes without the list of candidates being reduced by this 
eliminating process. For in truth no single candidate passes without the 
concurrence of an examiner selected expressly as being totally independ- 
ent of the College. 

The following names of gentlemen who have acted as examiners in 
arts during the past four years, and have had an absolute voice in the 
admission or rejection of candidates, alike to matriculation, honors and 
degrees, supply the best guarantee of the practical character of the exam- 
inations — the high standard of which is attested by the examination 
papers: — the He v. M. Willis, D.D., Principal of Knox's College ; Rev. 
8. S. Nelles, M.A., President of Victoria College; Rev. A. Lillie, D.D., 
Theological Professor of the Congregational Institution ; Rev. J . Taylor, 
M.D., Theological Professor of the United Presbyterian Divinity Hall ; 
Rev. G. P. Young, M.A., Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Knox's 
College ; Rev. E. J. Senkler, M.A., of Caius College, Cambridge ; Rev. 
E. Schluter, M.A. ; Rev. W. Stennett, M.A., Principal of Upper Canada 
College ; Rev. W. Ormiston, B. A., late one of the masters of the Nor- 
mal School ; Adam Crooks, LL.B., barrister-at-law • James Brown, 
M.A. ; T. J. Robertson, M.A., head master of the Normal School ; 
Robert Checkley, M.D. ; Thomas Ridout, Esq. ; F. Montivani, LL.D. ; 
E. Crombie, M.A., barrister-at-law; Michael Barrett, B.A., M.D., 
President of the Toronto School of Medicine ; L. S. Oille, M.A., M.D. ; 
G. R. R. Cockbum, M.A., Rector of the Model Grammar School ; 
William Wedd, M.A., classical master, Upper Canada College ; H. 
Haacke, French translator to the Legislative Assembly ; Emile Coulon, 
French master, Model Grammar School ; E. Billings, F.G.S., palaeontolo- 
gist to the Provincial Geological Survey. 

With such gentlemen, selected, as they have been, with an anxious 
desire to secure able and independent examiners, I feel confident that no 
University examinations have ever been conducted with stricter impar- 
tiality than those of the University of Toronto, under the very system so 
unjustly maligned. 

Moeal and Religious oversight of Students. 

Returning, however, from this digression, suggested by analogies in 
the University of London and the Queen's University of Ireland, I 
reveit once more to another aspect of the question of sectarian, in contra- 
distinction to provincial or national education. It is assumed in the 
memorial of the Wesleyan Conference that under the system of a pro- 
vincial non-denominational College, the youth educated in it must be 
placed beyond the reach of religious training and pastoral oversight. If 
by pastoral oversight is meant the placing of each student, while in the 
College, under the care and teaching of resident ministers of his own 
denomination, this is manifestly beyond the reach of any system but one 
which limits all education to the training of each youth in schools and 
colleges of his own sect, and it is as impossible under the constitution of 
Queen's or Victoria, as of University College. When Victoria College 
admits a Wesleyan Methodist student, the desired end is secured for 



76 

him. But when it admits an Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Baptist, or 
Roman Catholic student, he must be dealt with precisely as he would be 
by University College, and as is done by the Noimal School of the 
Province. 

In University College daily religious services are provided, the resi- 
dent students are placed under the charge of the ministers of their 
respective denominations, their parents or guardians are consulted as to 
the place of worship they are to attend, and the minister of religion 
whose teaching they are to wait upon. The resident Professor — who 
has been selected with a special view to his fitness for the duties — has 
prayer and reading of the Scriptures daily, morning and evening, in the 
College Hall, for all who do not object, themselves, or by their guar- 
dians, on conscientious grounds, to be present ; and it is his duty to 
ascertain that they attend regularly at their respective places of worship. 
Permit me to read to you the circular addressed by the resident professor 
to the parent or guardian of each student, on his coming in to residence ; 
it will show the systematic care with which we aim at fulfilling this part 
of our duty : — 

" As your son 2^'0])oses coming into residence in this College, I beg 
to inform you that it is the desire of the council that, where there 
is no conscientious objection, all the students under their charge should 
be present in the Hall at daily morning and evening prayers, with 
reading of the Scriptures. It is also their wish, that they should regu- 
larly attend on Sundays their respective 2)laces of worship, and receive 
such other religious instruction as their parents and guardians may desire. 
I have to request that you will be so good as to let me know whether you 
desire your son to attend such daily prayers in the College, and that you 
will also mention the minister under whose charge you wish to place him. 
The council will afford every facility for the carrying out of your inten- 
tions, and with this view, will exercise such control over your son during 
his residence, as may be best caladated to effect your wishes. In the 
event of your not informing me, of your desire on the subject, the Council 
will assume that you have no objection to his being required to attend the 
daily prayers of the College, and ivill exercise an oversight as to his attend- 
ance on the ministrations of a clergyman of the denomination to ivhich he 
belongs." 

Provincial or Sectarian College Education ? 

Looking to the system thus in force, it is manifest, therefore, that the 
Provincial College — though strictly non-denominational, is not there- 
fore non-religious ; nor can there be any need that it should be so in a 
Christian country. In this, indeed, is illustrated the only possible sys- 
tem for a publicly endowed national education. It is the same principle 
which pervades our Common Schools, Provincial College, and Univer- 
sity ; a public system in which no sectarian distinctions are recognised, 
and in which no denomination meddles as such — equally open to all, and 
under public control. It is the national educational system of the peo- 
ple, consistent throughout. The teachers, trustees, county boards, and 
inspectors ; the Deputy and Chief Superintendent, and Council of Pub- 
lic Instruction ; the College Professors, University Senate, and Chan- 
cellor, are all chosen by the people : — through direct election in local 
cases ; through the Executive in the provincial departments. 



77 

The establishment of a well appointed College and University is 
necessarily a costly thing. The Province cannot hope to command the 
services of men of the highest class without offering salaries and all 
requisite equipments of lecture rooms, museums, and library, in some 
degree approximating to similar institutions at home ; but if the Gov- 
ernment were to comply with the prayer of the Wesleyan Conference 
Memorial, and " cause an Act to be passed by which all the Colleges 
now established, or which may be established in Upper Canada, may be 
placed upon equal footing in regard to public aid." It must necessarily 
involve the maintenance of many very imperfectly organised institutions, 
at an increased outlay, to do the work of one. Under any possible sys- 
tem of public education, whatever may be the facilities afforded for the 
higher branches of instruction in a country situated as Canada at present 
is, only a limited number will be found prepared to avail themselves of 
them. The multiplication of denominational Colleges would, therefore, 
tend very slightly — if at all — to increase the number of students, while 
it so greatly multiplied professors. 

It cannot be overlooked also, that whereas it appears by the last cen- 
sus that there are twenty-four separate denominations specified in Upper 
Canada — apart from smaller bodies grouped under a general head — the 
greater number of which embrace thousands in their communion ; any 
attempt to endow denominational Colleges, in lieu of a non-sectarian 
institution, where all enjoy the same rights and privileges, must involve 
great injustice to those who, although belonging to religious bodies too 
few in number, or too poor to effect the organization achieved by wealthier 
sects, have an equal right to share in the denominational division of 
public funds set apart for higher education. The evil assumes a still 
worse aspect, when it is considered that some religious denominations 
have conscientious objections to any such system of distributing public 
funds • and while they are thus excluded from availing themselves of 
them, they would be subjected to the grievance of the common funds of 
the Province being thus expended by their representatives in opposition 
to their religious scruples, and to their own personal loss. If, therefore, 
the Province provides an adequately endowed and well appointed Provin- 
cial College, to which every youth in the Profince has free access, with- 
out any distinction as to sect or party ; and also provides a University 
to grant degrees — not only to such students, but to all in the Province — 
in like manner, without reference to sect or party, who are found quali- 
fied to pass the requisite examinations ; they can have no just ground of 
complaint who — declining to avail themselves of the Provincial Institu- 
tion to which they have free access — voluntarily choose to take their 
preparatory training under professors and teachers appointed by their 
own denominations^ 

University College truly Provincial, 

It is accordingly seen by the returns both of the University and College, 
that the laity of all the leading denominations in the Province — Protes- 
tant, Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Congrega- 
tionalist, Baptist, &c. — have freely availed themselves of the untrammeled 
advantages thus offered to them ; and that every year witnesses an increase 
in the number of students entering University College, and of graduates 
admitted to the degrees of the Provincial University. 



78 

The following are the returns of the students of University College, for 
the academic year 1859-60, according to their respective denominations, — 
apart from the undergraduates in the faculties of arts, law and medicine, 
attached to the University, but not attending the College : 

Free Church 49 

Church of England 3o 

United Presbyterian 24 

Methodists 22 

Congregationalists 10 

No returns II 

Presbyterians 10 

Church of Scotland 7 

Church of Rome 5 

Baptists 5 

Reformed Presbyterians 2 

Plymouth Brethren 1 

Quakers 1 

Making a total of 188 

'"'Matriculated students 80 

Occasional students 108 

These returns furnish satisfactory evidence . that the non-denomina- 
tional character of University College has not been a bar to the full 
acceptance of the educational advantages it offers, by members of all the 
leading denominations in the Province, including a fair average of the 
very religious persuasions, whose leaders appear before you as objectors 
to the system. 

A nonymous Pamphleteering. 

One or two other points I must note before concluding. It would 
have better pleased me had I been able to omit all reference to some of 
the very strange charges which have been brought against us ; and I 
feel confident when I look at the respected gentlemen who represent 
both the denominations that appear before you as claimants of the fund, 
that they already repent the course unwisely forced upon them in regard 
to us. I was particularly struck, as you all must have been, when, on 
Mr. Langton addressing you, and inadvertently appealing to this widely 
circulated pamphlet as that of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference, the 
reverend President of the Conference most markedly shook his head, 
in clear testimony that the Conference disowns ajl responsibility for it. 
Mr. Chairman, I am not familiar with parliamentary forms, but if it 
accords with the regular proceedings of this Committee, I should exceed- 
ingly desire that a minute be made of that shake of Dr. Stinson's head. 

* The true test of the efficiency of the College is its progress in the number of Matricu- 
lated Students, when the above returns v/ere made they were 80, an increase on previous 
years. This year (1860) they number 110. The whole number of Matriculated Students 
entered at the ancient university »f Cambridge the same year is only 360. If our Provin- 
cial College is left to go on in its present successful career, it cannot be doubted it will 
ere long equal this, if not surpass it, 



79 

It was a veiy grave and speaking shake of the head ! It said as 
plainly as the shake of a doctor's head could do, that he, for one, repudi- 
ated the burden of responsibility for this anonymous miscellany of misre- 
presentations and blunders. I am not surprised that the earnest and 
justly esteemed religious body, of which Dr. Stinson is the representa- 
tive, should abjure this pamphlet, for it is a tissue of the most absurd 
arid extravagant contradictions and blundering mis-statements ever put 
together in the same number of pages. 

Novel Teachings of History ! 

It has been stated in evidence that my own chair of history is useless, 
and Dr. Ryerson has specially assigned as a reason, that history is taught 
in the Grammar Schools. A singular idea indeed, the Doctor must have 
of a University course of study, if, because a boy learns by rote certain 
things in a Grammar School, a Professor of a University can have 
nothing more to teach him ! But I find in this same pamphlet a passage 
which remarkably coincides with this brilliant idea of the functions of a 
Professor of History, whoever its author may have been. " History 
teaches us," says this erudite commentator on tlie duties of its professor, 
"history teaches us that just in proportion as Greece and Rome lavished 
their resources upon stone or marble, upon the material and inanimate, 
they declined in the intellectual and moral," and that, therefore, because 
an architectural collegiate edifice has been reared for the University of 
Toronto, the day of her intellectual and moral ruin is at hand ! I should 
be gratified if the learned Superintendent of Education, who has so clear 
a perception of how history should be taught, would refer to the chapter 
of Greek or Roman history, where such lessons are to be learned. We 
read, indeed, of the age of Pericles, an age in which Greece did lavish 
her resources on stone and marble — in which Phidias wrought those 
exquisite sculptures, which, as the Elgin marbles, now constitute the 
priceless treasures of our British Museum — in which under Callicrates 
and Ictinus, the marble columns of the Parthenon were reared on the 
heights of Athens, where still their ruins stand, the unrivalled architec- 
tural models of all later centuries. That was indeed an age of stone and 
marble, but was it an age of intellectual decline ? That age in which, 
under ^Eschylus, the Attic drama was called into being, which witnessed 
in succession the wondrous intellectual triumphs of Sophocles and Euri- 
pides, which revelled in the comic genius of Aristophanes, and drank in 
wisdom from the philosophy of Socrates ; the era of the most impartial 
and philosophic of historians, Thucydicles ; and ere its close, of the vigor- 
ous and graphic Xenophon. Or did. all intellectual and moral vigour- 
perish in that age of marble, which was succeeded in later generations by 
the wisdom of Plato and the philosophy of Aristotle ? Or was it not 
after that very age of Greece's architectural triumphs that she produced 
the most precious gifts of that classic literature which has constituted the 
priceless treasure of all later times ? 

Financial misrepresentations. 

But there are other statements laid before this committee at which 
reverend doctors might well shake their heads, did they only know all 



80 

the truth. Mr. Langton having imposed on Him, as Vice- Chancellor of 
the University of Toronto, the grave responsibility of defending it against 
its assailants, found it his duty as an experienced financier, to call in 
question certain figures which have been placed before you in evidence. 
Dr. Ryerson had submitted to you, and handed in, in writing, a series of 
very singular financial statements — comparing the cost of the Bursar's 
office of Trinity College, consisting of one individual, with very few lands 
to look after, and that of the Bursar's office of Toronto University, 
which has in charge the sale and management of lands, and the invest- 
ment of funds, throughout the jDrovince ; and he had revealed to you the 
wonderful discovery that the one actually costs a good deal more than 
the other ! The unfairness of these and similar comparisons was suffi- 
ciently apparent.* But on looking into their details, Mr. Langton had 
found that what Dr. Ryerson stated as the total annual expense of 
Trinity College, was not only given in his own "Educational Journal," 
at more than double the amount, but that this total omitted the whole 
cost of the Trinity Scholarships, amounting to $4,200 ; that his total 
annual cost of Victoria College was $1,600 less than the mere amount 
of the salaries stated to you by its own Bursar, Dr. Green ; and that, 
not to multiply details, the sum stated as the cost of Trinity College 
incidentals, and since triumphantly printed, with double marks of excla- 
mation, in your own evidence, as only one-thirteenth of the corresponding 
charge of Toronto University, has actually been made to suggest this 
false impression, by changing the Trinity pounds into dollars — when, I 
say, Mr. Langton pointed out these grave, misleading errors, Dr. Ryer- 
son disclaimed the responsibility of his own statement, and blamed ano- 
ther person, who had furnished him with the material. 

Mr. Langton felt it to be his duty to refer to this, because it wa.s not 
a hasty calculation made by Dr. Ryerson in addressing you, but a writ- 
ten statement handed in to this Committee, printed by the Committee, 
and circulated without correction among all its members. Yet, when 
Mr. Langton referred to it, there was a cry of " Shame ! Had not Dr. 
Ryerson repudiated it 1 Had he not corrected it two days before If If 
he did, it still stands on your records unamended, and I say Mr. Langton 
was thoroughly justified, and simply did his duty, in pointing out those 
inaccuracies ; and Dr. Ryerson must have a singular idea of his position, 
if he thinks he can evade the responsibility of such gross inaccuracies 
in a statement thus deliberately framed and handed in, or shift its burden 
upon any one but himself. But on examining Dr. Ryerson's own 
manuscript, it turned out that the comparisons in question were not in 



* Mr. David Buchan, the Bursar of the University of Toronto, examined : 
Ques. 275. — Referring to your accounts for 1857 as published in 1858, No. 2, is not the 
statement of Dr. Ryerson, as to the expenses of your office and of stationery, correct so 
far as the amount is stated by him ? 

Ans. — On referring to Appendix No. 12, printed with the Journals of the Legislative 
Assembly, 21 Victoria, 1858. I find there an account headed "No. 2 (Abstract,) University 
of Toronto." This abstract was not prepared in my office. If 1 take the first item, 
" Bursar's Office," £2261, and the second, "incidental expenses." which most people, on 
examining the account, would suppose referred to[the incidentals of the office, £375) ^2s. 
4d., I get a to.al of £2640 12s. 4d., which is the amount charged to the office in my detailed 
accounts submitted to Parliament. But if, in place of taking the second item, I overleap it 
and the six following ones, and arbitrarily select the ninth, which lias nothing to do icith 
the office, — by adding the first and the ninth together, I do obtain a sum corresponding to 
the $11,438 given in question 185, and said in that question to be "reported for 1857 as 
expended in the Bursar's office!" 



81 

writing, but clipped out from some publication, having already done 
duty elsewhere, before they were thus produced to complete the work of 
misrepresentation here. 

Perverted Evidence. 

Nor is this the only story which has done duty against us elsewhere, 
but which would not bear investigation. There is another point I must 
speak upon, because I see present the chief adviser of the Representative 
of Her Majesty in the Government of this Province, the Hon. Attorney- 
General West. Dr. Ryerson, in the written statement which he handed 
in to this Committee, presented originally in his own manuscript a 
paragraph which has . since been withdrawn. I received in Toronto a 
proof of this statement, as printed for you from his own manuscript, 
which I presumed was the evidence as finally given in to the Committee ; 
and it is only since I came down to Quebec that I learned this passage 
had been suppressed, though not before it had been read to you, and 
widely circulated elsewhere. It is a statement with reference to Gram- 
mar School teachers educated in University College. Dr. Ryerson said 
in that passage: — " The reports of the Inspectors of Grammar Schools 
show that Toronto University supplies only eight masters to seventy -five 
Grammar Schools, while Queen's College supplies ten. The same reports 
show that the graduates of Toronto University as a whole are less efficient 
masters of Grammar Schools than those of Queen's College, Victoria Col- 
lege, or Trinity College, of Toronto or Dublin.' 1 ''* 

This, Sir, is a very grave charge, which, when I read it, not knowing 
that its author had since repented of it, received my very special atten- 
tion. I felt that, even if true, we could answer that our University 
had only been six years in operation, and that it was not till the year 
before last, we had been able to turn out a graduate at all. It would 
have seemed only reasonable, if it had been found expedient, that we 
should be allowed a little time to develop the institution, before a Com- 
mittee of Investigation sat upon it. Nevertheless, with every considera- 
tion of the circumstances in which we are placed, I was surprised at the 
statement, and wrote to the Rev. Mr. Ormiston, one of the Inspectors of 
Grammar Schools, a graduate of Victoria College, and who, having been 
one of the teachers of the Toronto Normal School under Dr. Ryerson, 
could have no special leanings in our favour. Mr. Ormiston came down 
to Toronto, and favoured me with an interview, in which he assured me 
that whatever motive or reason could have induced Dr. Ryerson to make 
such a statement, it was unsupported by his reports. He gave me 

* Copies of Dr. Ryerson's printed statement, as circulated among the members of Commit- 
tee and others, were procured from the Clerk of the Parliamentary Committee in the ordinary 
course ; and duly forwarded, with the other evidence to Toronto. This extraordinary and 
unfounded statement was forthwith investigated, and the inspectors of Grammar Schools 
were called on to state what were the actual facts, but after they had been summoned as 
witnesses, the passage disappeared from the Chief Superintendent's statement. Hence the 
following proceedings in Committee : 

" Reference having been made to summoning witnesses, Mr. Cayley put the following 
question to Mr. Langton : 

Ques. 143. — Do you still desire that Mr. Cockbnrn and the Rev. Mr. Ormiston shall be 
summoned before the Committee 1 

Ans. — I have no longer any desire, so far as I can see at present, for the appearance of 
Messrs. Cockburn and Ormiston, because as Dr. Ryerson's evidence now appears in its 
revised shape, it does not contain the imputation which I desired these gentlemen to rebut." 



82 

comments, which he permitted me to write down from his lips, relative 
to the graduates of the Univeisity, on whom he had reported as Inspec- 
tor of Schools. He had specially reported two graduates of Toronto 
University, as inefficient masters. One was a good scholar, but his 
eccentricities marred his success. And is it imagined that the wisdom 
of the Legislature can devise a University that will cure a man's eccen- 
tricities 1 But I found on examination that we were not responsible for 
him at all. He was a gentleman who had taken his whole course of 
education at Trinity College, Dublin, and having produced evidence of 
that before the Senate of Toronto University, was admitted to his degree 
ad eundem. And, in strange contradiction to the statements made by 
Dr. Ryerson, Mr. Ormiston added that there were two Trinity College 
Dublin man, whom he had been obliged to recommend to withdraw. In 
another bad case of a Toronto University graduate, it was repotted he 
would never make a good teacher, and this is very likely, as he is now 
an inmate of the Lunatic Asylum. [Dr. Wilson continued to read the 
notes furnished him by Mr. Ormiston, which were altogether at variance 
with Dr. Byerson's statement, and proceeded.] 

It is a very serious charge to bring against a University ; but I say 
unhesitatingly, in the presence of the head of Her Majesty's Executive 
Government, that the reports from the Inspectors of Grammar Schools 
do not bear out Dr. Ryerson's statements ; and it is a most grave charge 
against the Chief Superintendent of Education, that he should have so 
far betrayed his trust, or so far have permitted prejudice to warp his 
judgment and pervert the evidence of his official reports, as to submit to 
you, and to give you in writing a statement of this nature, which, when 
challenged, he has been compelled to withdraw. 

Gentlemen, call for and examine these reports of the Inspectors of 
Grammar Schools. You will find in them no evidence to bear out such 
allegations. Mr. Langton has inspected them, and I have perused the 
extracts made from those manuscripts now in Dr. Ryerson's possession ; 
and they abundantly account for his withdrawal of the unfounded charge. 
Let him summon those inspectors before you, if he dare. It was on Mr. 
Langton's calling for their appearance as witnesses that the statement 
was erased. They are not men to hide the truth on our behalf. They owe 
their appointments to Dr. Ryerson, and are, or have both been teachers 
in his schools. Nevertheless, they are men of honour and probity, and 
that is all that we require in witnesses on our behalf.* 

The Family Compact of Professors. 

Had I consulted my own feelings, or appeared here merely in my own 
defence, I should have left this unsaid. Dr. Ryerson well knows I have 
no personal feeling against him. On the contrary, I have had much 
friendly intercourse with him in former years ; and when he went home 
to select a rector for his Model Grammar School, he owed it to my 
introductions, and to my brother's aid, that he obtained his present 
efficient rector. Nor did I come to Quebec even now with unkindly 
feelings towards him, though his conduct before this Committee seemed 
strange and indeed inexplicable. But the animus he has shown before 

* It is sufficient to say that the Grammar School Inspectors were not produced as wit- 
nesses, nor were their reports read to the Committee or printed in the evidence. 



83 

this Committee^ since I have been present at its sittings, has not only 
changed my opinion greatly, but has led me to look back upon past 
events and the circumstances of my former intercourse with him, and to 
see them in a new light. I read with scorn his statement to this Com- 
mittee, as I find it recorded in the evidence, that "If the committee 
should order the minutes of the proceedings of the Senate to be laid 
before them, and mark who were present, and what was done at each 
meeting, they would see how the system has been worked, and how 
parties connected with the University and Upper Canada Colleges have 
directed as to expenditures, studies, scholarships, &c. *'! and again, " The 
minutes will show that those expenditures have been chiefly directed by 
a family compact of gentlemen receiving their salaries from the Univer- 
sity and Upper Canada College endowments." 

Why did he put in the word " gentlemen V I read, and I believe my 
colleagues have also read, his statement as equivalent to characterising us 
as a pack of scoundrels. I have not been much engaged in duties like 
this. My habits have been acquired in the pleasant retirement of years, 
chiefly expended in literary pastime and study. I have not been accus- 
tomed to appear before such Committees, and perhaps, therefore, I may 
seem to attach too much importance to language, which may not present 
itself in the same aspect to men accustomed to confront the bold and 
rough usages of Parliamentary life. But I can conceive of no explana- 
tion that can be put upon this language, characterising us as a family 
compact, directing as to expenditures, studies, scholarships, and salaries, 
other than that we were something closely allied to a pack of swindlers ; 
a set of men abusing the great trust committed to them, for their own 
private ends, and personal aggrandisement. 

I believe Dr. Ryerson will be able, in his explanation of statements he 
has been compelled to make to you, to show that he advocated the 
expenditure of a smaller sum than was ultimately appropriated for scho- 
larships in the University • but he cannot deny this, that we bore no 
part in relation to the largest of the expenditures which has been speci- 
ally brought as a charge against us : that appropriation of .£75,000 — 
that frightful extravagance of ours for a new building. Dr. Ryerson 
stated in his evidence that he believed that appropriation was made 
during his absence from the country. I doubt not he stated so in per- 
fect sincerity ; but I find on looking at the minutes that he was not 
absent on the 17 th March, 1854, when Chief Justice Draper gave notice 
of an Address to His Excellency, with a view to the appropriation of a 
sum for buildings. I find, too, that Dr. Ryerson was present, and there 
is no record on the minutes that he objected, when, on the 24th March, 
Chief Justice Draper, seconded by Hon. J. C. Morrison, moved the Ad- 
dress to His Excellency. And on the 25th March, when that Address 
was read a second time and carried, Dr. Ryerson again was present, and 
the minutes record no protest or opposition to the appropriation as recom- 
mended. I had an interview this morning with the Solicitor-General, 
who is prepared to give evidence that Dr. Ryerson was present and of- 
fered no opposition to that Address, which was to lead to such " frightful 
extravagance."* And I believe there are other charges brought against 

* Question submitted by the Rev. Dr. Ryeraon, and put to the Hon. Joseph C. Morrison, 
by the Chairman : 



84 

us, of which we are equally innocent, but on which Dr. Ryerson cannot 
clear himself. The salary of the President of University College was 
recommended on his motion. That large, but not excessive, salary now 
enjoyed by the President, was moved by Dr. Ryerson. And he cannot 
deny that to that same motion, in the absence of the Professors who had 
not then a seat on the Senate, and without the slightest instigation from 
them, he made an addition, declaring that we were underpaid, and that 
our salaries should be raised. I of all men in the world need not object 
to that act, enjoying as I do at this present moment an increase of salary 
owing to that motion ; but I wish to show that we did not, as we have 
been charged, ourselves vote that addition to our salaries, or even know 
that such a proposition was entertained. Nor can he deny that he voted 
the present salary of the Principal of Upper Canada College, which he 
has declared to be extravagant, but apologised for it by saying he did not 
believe a Canadian would have been appointed. He cannot deny that, 
in opposition to that very family compact of Professors, he was one of 
the most active leaders in getting a pension to Mr. Maynard, dismissed 
from Upper Canada College for improper conduct, and who, many 
think, ought to have been dismissed long before. And nothing can 
justify Dr. Ryerson for having preferred this abominable and baseless 
charge of a family compact, for this simple reason, that all the expendi- 
tures on buildings, library, scholarships, salaries, and pensions with 
which he charged them — with the solitary exception of the pension to 
Mr. Maynard — were authorised long before a single Professor of Univer- 
sity College, except Dr. McCaul, as its President, had a seat in the 
Senate. 

This, gentlemen, is a specimen of the baseless charges that have been 
circulated through the country, and have helped to mislead the minds of 
hundreds, and to burden your table with petitions originated by misre- 
presentation, and founded on error. And I ask you now, as an impar- 

Qaes. 464. — " Do you recollect particularly the proceedings of the Senate in 1854, and 
the part that Dr. Ryerson took in them 1 

Ans. — " I recollect, generally the proceedings, but I cannot at this time say the parti- 
cular course that Dr. Ryerson took." 

Passage in Dr. Ryerson's Reply, Evidence, p. 152 : 

"I cannot give implicit credit to the statement of the gentleman, (Dr. Wilson) upon the 
subject, because in the same speech he introduced the name of the Hon. J. C. Morrison 
as a witness that I had supported and voted for measures to which I now object. I took 
the liberty, yesterday, of putting, through the Chairman, a question to Mr. Morrison on 
the subject, whether he remembered these proceedings. What was his answer 1 That he 
did not recollect them, nor the course I pursued. I leave the Committee to decide between 
the gentleman's assertion the other diy and the testimony of Mr. Morrison. And if he 
was so far wrong as to his statement of what Mr. Morrison said, it is not too much to 
assume that he may have been as far wrong in regard to the imputations he ascribes to Mr. 
Ormiston." 

The minutes of the University Senate were referred to, from which it was shown that 
Dr. Ryerson was present at each of the three meetings in question. No counter motion 
or protest betrayed the slightest indication of his opposition, when it was time to have 
done it effectually ; and the Hon. Solicitor- General was again summoned and asked, 

Ques. 538. — " Had you any conversation with Dr. Wilson, and did you tell him that Dr. 
Ryerson was present when the address for the building was carried, and that Dr. Ryerson 
offered no opposition to it 1 

Ans. — "Dr. Wilson, in a conversation respecting the appropriation made for the Univer- 
sity Buildings, asked me whether, on the occasion of the proposition of the address to His 
Excellency, by Chief Justice Draper, seconded by myself (in 1854,) any objection had been 
made by Dr. Ryerson, who was stated to be present 1 I told Dr. Wilson, that in my 
recollection no objection was made to the appropriation by any member of the Senate, 
and that if Dr. Ryerson had opposed it, I thought I should have remembered it." 



85 

tial tribunal, if you think the Chief Superintendent of Education for" 
Upper Canada — who had sat on the present Senate from its organization 
in 1853 till 1857, when Professors of University College, for the first 
time, took their seat at that Board, without ever recording a single pro- 
test, counter-motion, or other evidence of practical opposition to all the 
chief expenditures, and other acts, now charged against us — I ask if he 
was justified in making this family-compact charge which he has recorded 
on your evidence 1 But Dr. Byerson has asked that the minutes be 
produced, and they shall be produced ; and he will be called upon, I 
trust, to show you, from those minutes, the evidence on which he grounds 
so base, and let me add also, so baseless a charge.* 

New University Buildings. 

With regard to the new University buildings, while I have disclaimed 
all responsibility for the original appropriation, as an act done long 
before I was a member of the Senate, I am prepared to assume all 
responsibility for the building, as not only a justifiable but an indispen- 
sable tjiing. Your memorialists charge us with acting in defiance of the 
law of 1853 in the erection of new buildings, and in providing accommo- 
dation in these for faculties which the Act expressly forbids. The latter 
blunder I believe the memorialists themselves are now fully aware is 
without foundation. As to the other illegal act, I can only say it was 
done under the presidency, and with the zealous concurrence of the pre- 
sent Chancellor Blake, one of the ablest and most upright Judges of 
Upper Canada. The Address was moved by the Chief Justice Draper, 
and seconded by the present Solicitor-General ; and the final appropria- 
tion was made by the Governor in Council, with the advice of the present 
Attorney-General. I venture to think that under these circumstances 
this Committee will acquit the Professors of any blame, if they should be 
inclined to interpret the Act differently from such high legal authorities. 

In defence of the necessity of the building, I will only say that during 
seven years in which I have been a Professor of University College, I 
have witnessed five removals. Since the Act of 1853 was passed we 
have been turned out of the old King's College building, and established 

* The Rev. Dr. Ryerson further examined. Question submitted by Professor Wilson, 
and put by the Chairman : 

Ques. 411. — "You stated to the Committee, 'that if the Committee would order the 
proceedings of the Senate to be laid before them, and mark ivho was present, and what was 
done at each meeting, they would see how the system has been worked, and how parties 
connected with the University and Upper Canada Colleges had directed as to expenditure, 
studies, scholarships, &c. The minutes will show that all these expenditures have been 
directed by a family compact of gentlemen receiving their salaries from the University and 
Upper Canada College endowments. ' Dr. Ryerson has the minutes before him ; will he 
specify in detail the facts to which he refers, seeing that ne Professor, except Dr. McCaul, 
had a seat at the Senate, before 2nd February, 1857 1 

Ans. — "I refer to the minutes. 

Ques. 509. — " Can you refer to any other minute of the Senate, after the date of my 
appointment as a member, on which either I, or Professor Cherriman, or Professor Croft, 
either voted in reference to our salaries, or were present when such a question was 
discussed ] 

Ans. — ''Certainly not. The presence or absence of a member of a body, when his salary is 
taken up, is a matter of no consequence, since his influence as a member of the body, would 
be precisely the same in regard to the proceedings in matters of the kind, whether he were 
absent or present." 

Yet the minutes were wanted to " mark who were present, and xchat was done at each 
meeting /" 



86 

in the Parliament buildings on Front-street. Parliament returning to 
Toronto, we were sent back to the old building ; Government requiring 
that, we were thrust into a little brick edifice originally built for a medi- 
cal school ; and before we at length moved into our present permanent 
buildings, we had been compelled to waste thousands of dollars on remo- 
vals, fittings, and temporary make-shifts, as distasteful to us as they 
were wasteful and extravagant. Surely it was wiser to put up adequate 
and permanent buildings, than fritter away the endowment in a system 
like that, which destroyed all faith in the perpetuity of the institution, 
and impeded every thing but the mere daily scramble to accomplish such 
work as could be got through, in the absence of nearly every needful 
provision of a well-appointed College. 

But while affirming that the new buildings are not only justifiable, but 
were an absolute necessity, if the University and College were to be 
maintained, I utterly deny the charge of useless extravagance in their 
erection. Having myself acted throughout on the building committee, I 
can say confidently that no committee ever strove more earnestly with a 
view to economy. After the plans had been approved of by the Govern- 
ment, we revised them, and ordered the omission of many features, 
which, though ornamental, were not indispensable to the practical 'objects 
of the building. Send for the contractors, Messrs. Worthington, and 
Jacques & Hay, and ask them if they were ever so watched and worried 
by a building committee for purposes of economy ; or summon our archi- 
tect, and enquire of him whether he found a committee of University 
Professors, or of the lawyers of Osgoode Hall, more unyielding on every 
threat of extra expenditure. 

Investigation welcomed. 

We have, Sir, in this, as in other matters, earnestly striven to do our 
duty ; and we do feel, after such earnest endeavours, at thus being sum- 
moned, like culprits before your bar, on charges so baseless, and on 
statements so loose and intangible, that — like the soil of secret slander — 
while the consequences are only too keenly apparent, the source is diffi- 
cult to combat as the viewless wind. But, gentlemen, we have not 
shrunk from this investigation, though feeling a natural repugnance to 
coming into collision with those who have proved themselves capable of 
assailing us with such unworthy weapons. 

We have every confidence in this Committee ; having nothing to fear 
from the fullest enquiry. In our matriculation examination our courses 
of study, our systems of options, and our modes of examination, we have 
set ourselves deliberately and earnestly to work out an educational system 
for Canada, such as we believe will secure — not for any special and pri- 
vileged class, but for the people at large — all the advantages a University 
can afford. We have not taken Oxford as our model ; for, without any 
disparagement to that ancient seat of learning, we believe that, could it 
be transplanted, with all its abstruse learning and all its antiquated and 
venerable forms, to our Canadian soil, it would prove little less useless to 
us than a college of medieval monks or learned eastern pundits. We 
have in our own University, representatives alike of the old and of the 
modern Universities of the mother country ; and we have anxiously 
striven to combine the experience of all ; while seeking, at the same 



87 

time, to add to that the means indispensable for adapting such experience 
to the novel circumstances of a young country like Canada. 

Having been appointed to the important and responsible trust implied 
in our selection to fill the various chairs in the Provincial College, I ask 
you, have we forfeited the confidence of the Government or of the coun- 
try 1 And if not, then I may be permitted to ask if such men as I have 
described as those constituting the Council of University College, are 
not capable of advising this Province in relation to the precise amount of 
Latin and Greek, of mathematics and sciences, that shall be required of a 
youth on entering the College 1 If they are incapable of advising you, 
who is to be your adviser 1 Is this Committee prepared to resolve how 
many books of Xenophon and Virgil shall be read 1 Whether Homer 
shall be taken at matriculation, or Horace be put in the place of Sallust 1 
And if men who have taken some of the highest honours in Cambridge, 
Oxford and Dublin — who have filled chairs in British Universities, and 
even bring to us the science of the famed University of Berlin, and the 
honours of the ancient seat of learning of Padua — if such men are not to 
be permitted to advise you on the details of a collegiate system, are you 
prepared to submit yourselves to the advice of Dr. Byerson, who never 
was in a college in his life, but who has told us in his famous scheme of 
University organization, propounded in his voluminous letter addressed 
to the Hon. Francis Hincks, in 1852, that he meditated it on some of 
the highest mountains of Europe — a circumstance which abundantly 
accounts for the windy and insubstantial character of its recommenda- 
tions ! 

A High Standard of Education Maintained. 

In order to meet the arguments which have been adduced against the 
system adopted by the University of Toronto, the Vice- Chancellor has 
produced in evidence the recommendations of the Commissioners of 
Oxford and Cambridge ; the practice of the Universities of London and 
Ireland, &c. — and evidence having thus been produced in proof, I may 
now be permitted to re-affirm, in concluding my defence, that the one 
aim of the Senate, and of the College Council, has been to devise a sys- 
tem of study whereby the youth of this Province may acquire those 
higher branches of education best calculated to fit them for becoming- 
intelligent and useful members of the community. In Canada, at least, 
education must be practical. It may be all very well for certain Oxford 
men, and their indiscriminating admirers, to maintain that the highest 
aim of a perfect collegiate training consists in the mastery of classical 
learning, but the scholarship of Oxford, if forced without restriction or 
choice on the youth of Canada, would in most cases prove of compara- 
tively little practical avail.* Nevertheless, let me not be misunderstood. 

* The Rev. Provost Whitaker examined : — By the Chairman. 

Ques. 344. — " Do you think that, in a country like Canada, the system of collegiate 
education should be exactly similar to that which prevails in and may be adopted by an 
old and wealthy country like England 1 

Answer. — No. 

Ques. 347. — "Are you of opinion that in this province, without an endowed church, with- 
out fellowships in the universities, without old and richly endowed grammar schools, and 
the many and various inducements in England to acquire eminent classical and mathema- 
tical attainments, the university education of this country can be fairly brought into 
comparison with that of Cambridge, or be reasonably expected to reach the same standard % 

Answer.—" No. " 



88 

I have freely admitted that the standard of matriculation, or the entrance 
examination, has been lowered ; but I have not admitted, and I do most 
positively deny, that the standard of education has been lowered. A 
student who goes through the whole classical course of the University 
will compare favourably with a graduate of equal ability in any other 
University in the British empire ; and if, in the exercise of options, he 
abandons classics at the prescribed point in his course, he can only do so 
in order to take in lieu of classics the defined substitutes of modern 
languages, natural sciences, and mathematics, which will no less tho- 
roughly train his mind, and in many cases will supply him with far more 
useful acquirements for the future course he is to pursue. The English 
Universities, under their old rigid system, turned out a class of educated 
men, with whom too frequently the people found little sympathy ; but 
the Scottish University system, by the very laxness which left the stu- 
dent's choice of studies so much to himself as practically to amount to a 
comprehensive system of options, has made an educated people ; and the 
latter I conceive is what Canada desires. 

Our Canadian Honor-men. 

Only one further point seems to require attention. Referring to our 
system of honors and scholarships, Dr. Ryerson has spoken of one-half 
of the time of the Professors of University College being taken up with 
teaching the honor-men, who, in an English University, employ their 
own tutors. The charge in reality amounts to this : that by its liberal 
endowments for the highest departments of education, at the Provincial 
College the son of the humblest Canadian peasant may enjoy precisely 
the same advantages as the son of the wealthiest nobleman in England 
does at the aristocratic and exclusive University of Oxford.'"' 

A Specimen Accusation I 

It only remains for me to thank the Committee for the patient hearing 
you have favoured me with, while thus endeavouring to place before you 
the broad grounds of defence, on the charges brought against my col- 
leagues and myself. I have not attempted to go minutely into details, 
nor to meet every petty charge, for indeed I have as yet only obtained 
partial access to the printed evidence, and I only know from rumour, of 
such accusations as the famous story of $2,000 expended on a Chancellor's 
gown — a perfectly true story — only it does not happen to refer to our 
Toronto University. Toronto, in the luxury of its modern civilization, 
actually rejoices in three independent Universities — with a host of col- 
leges. And one of those did resolve on doing fitting honour to its 
Chancellor ; and, entrusting his dignity to a Cambridge tailor, got out so 
magnificent a fac-simile of Prince Albert's robes, that its Chancellor 
could not be persuaded to wear it till they had clipped off its superfluous 
tail ! And this story — which little fits the homely official garb of our 
University Chancellor, an heir-loom of old King's College, now consider- 
ably the worse of wear — this story has been gravely retailed to you as 

* It ought also jto be noted that the honor lectures are free to all the students, and 
many of them are largely attended. Every encouragement is held out for them to do so. 






S9 

one of the many proofs of University extravagance. It is a sample of 
the stories that have been hawked about the country, accompanied with 
the cry of Papist and Infidel coupled with our names — in order to obtain 
those signatures which you have found appended to petitions against us. 
We may well welcome the sitting of this Committee, which now at 
length affords us an opportunity of repelling, with fitting scorn, some of 
the many slanders and falsehoods that have been bandied about against 
us. But let this example suffice. A few words are sufficient to give 
currency to a mis-statement which it takes many to disprove ; and I 
should have to encroach on your forbearance not for hours, but days, 
were I to attempt to deal in detail with all the baseless charges that have 
been circulated against us. 

In these remarks I have confined myself to a few leading points of 
fact, and to one important matter of opinion. The Vice-Chancellor of 
the University has already done for that institution all that its friends 
can desire ; and I shall leave to the President of University College to 
treat in like detail the specialities pertaining to the college, excepting iu 
so far as the Committee may desire to question me on the subject. 

I have only to say, we have absolutely nothing to conceal. We wel- 
come this enquiry as a means of bringing to the test of proof a thousand 
blundering mis-statements and slanderous insinuations that have been 
circulated throughout the Province for months past, without the possibility 
of contradiction.* I rest confident in the assurance that the Committee 

* The following may suffice as a specimen of the manner in which charges of extrava- 
gance were sustained. Rev. Mr. Poole examined. — (Evidence, p. 57) : — 

" Another source of extravaganc; maybe seen in the number of persons employed in 
connection with that establishment. Including the Rev. President, there are eleven Pro- 
fessors, and one Tutor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Bursar and his five assistants, the Libra- 
rian and two Registrars, one for the University and another for the College, the Bedel, 
acting Bedel, Steward, Messenger, Porter, Bellringer, Labourers, Woodcutters, and other 
servants, the Dean of residence and seven servants employed about the premises. There 
are seven persons connected with the Observatory, and in addition to all these, an attend- 
ant servant is provided to wait on each of the following professors, viz. : Professor of 
Natural History, Professor of Natural Philosophy, and Professor of Chemistry — these 
latter servants being required only thirty weeks in the year, although receiving a full 
year's salary. Here are 45 persons regularly salaried, besides others occasionally em- 
ployed — the salaries varying from $400 to $4,000 a-year. If we include the 29 Examiners, 
we have more paid officers connected with the establishment than undergraduates admitted 
to its halls. " 

Such is an example of the statements made use of to prejudice the Committee. Let us 
see what they are worth : — 

The Bursar and his assistants are appointed by the Government to manage certain 
public property, including not only the University lands, but also the lands and endow- 
ments of Upper Canada College, and the parliamentary grants to the Magnetic Observa- 
tory. They may, or may not be too numerous, but the University has as little to do with 
their appointment, removal, or salaries, as with those of the Crown Lands Department. 

Of the seven persons said to be connected with the Observatory, only one, the Director, 
receives one-third of his salary from the University funds, as Professor of Meteorology. 
The others are all paid by the annual vote of parliament for that purpose, and the Uni- 
versity has no share in their appointment, duties, or salaries. With the partial exception 
of Meteorology, the number of chairs in University CoDege remains as determined by the 
Act of 1853. p But their occupants are here made to count double, first as professors, and 
then as examiners ! 

In the same piece of evidence, one of the professors being also Dean, appears as 
two persons; and the College Tutor figures first as such, and then as Registrar. As to 
the servants, one, for example, waits on the Professors of Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, 
and History, assists in the practical laboratory, takes charge of the philosophical appa- 
tus, &c. He, therefore, counts for some four or five different persons. The same is the 
case with other servants. The Bedel, acting Bedel, and Steward are only three names for 
the same person. Porter, Bell-ringer, Labourer, Wood-cutter, are in like macner the 



90 

will be satisfied by the evidence produced on all the various charges — 
and still more, by the inconsistencies, blunders, and contradictions which 
have marked the statements in which they are made — that they are 
entirely founded in error. The University and College have only now 
been furnished for the first time with the means of accomplishing the 
objects for which they were established ; and I rest in full confidence 
that the wisdom of the Legislature will permit them still, untrammelled, 
to carry out, with such means, the noble and patriotic objects already 
inaugurated by them, under many difficulties and impediments, to success. 

various duties of one or two, multiplied into as many persons. By such a process, a 
dozen men may pass muster at any time for a hundred ! 

.But such gross misrepresentations, — which were not always replied to, from their noto- 
rious absurdity, — having once been affirmed, are repeated and quoted again and again as 
facts. Equally gross financial mis-statements are re-produced, Mid paraded as substantial 
and well established truths, merely because they have been once affirmed by Dr. Ryerson, 
M r. Poole, or some other witness, in the course of the protracted discussions. 



ROWSELL & ELLIS, PRINTERS, KING STREET, TORONTO. 



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